نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اینکه چگونه شهروندان محیط اطرافشان را درک و دریافت می‌نمایند به عوامل زمینه‌ای پویا و ایستای متعدد بستگی دارد. چنین برداشت ذهنی و زمینه‌محور می‌تواند باعث هیجانات و احساسات مختلفی در افراد گردد که نگاه و رویکردی جدید و الحاقی در مطالعه ساختار مکانی و زمانی شهر ایجاد نموده است. بررسی ارتباط بین محیط ساخته‌شده به عنوان یک بعد کالبدی با جنبه‌های رفتاری و هیجانی انسان در پژوهش‌های اخیر و بخصوص در مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی‌شهری بسیار مورد‌توجه قرار‌گرفته و در سال‌های اخیر به یک موضوع ضروری تبدیل شده‌است. هدف پژوهش‌های نظری، تجربی و کاربردی در این زمینه بطور کلی آن است که کیفیت زندگی در شهر را از طریق مطالعه لایه‌ای جدید که به جنبه‌های هیجانی-رفتاری افراد توجه دارد، ارتقاء دهند. از این روی، هدف این مقاله معرفی رویکرد و حوزه پژوهشی «احساسات شهری» است. در این نوشتار سعی شده ‌است تا با مرور و بررسی نظریات و مطالعات انجام‌شده در ارتباط با موضوع به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای، به نقش و اهمیت‌، کاربست و یکپارچه‌سازی پاسخ‌های هیجانی محیط‌های شهری در فرآیند برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی ‌شهری پرداخته شود. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که مطالعات انجام­شده در این زمینه را می‌توان به دو دسته نظریه‌ها و مطالعات پایه و مطالعات و پژوهش‌های جدید، آغاز شده با کار کریستین نولد (2009) تقسیم نمود. برخلاف نگاه پایه که بیشتر متمرکز بر عوامل اثرگذار محیطی به‌گونه‌ای کیفی و بسیار کلی و مبتنی بر روش­های سنتی سنجش هیجان بوده­است، پژوهش­های جدید (5 سال اخیر) برحسب فراوانی به­ترتیب شامل 4 حوزه می­شوند: 1- متمرکز بر سنجش هیجان2- روش‌های نوین سنجش هیجان 3- بررسی عوامل اثرگذار بر هیجان در محیط و 4- کاربردهای هیجان. علی‌رغم اهمیت و کاربرد این حوزه میان‌رشته‌ای در مطالعات شهری، هنوز پتانسیل‌های علمی این رویکرد جدید در همه جوانب متنوع کاربرد و تحلیل شهری کشف نشده است. اصلی­ترین حوزه­های کاربرد لایه احساسی- هیجانی در حوزه شهرسازی را می­توان حوزه سلامت روان، شهر شاد و فضاهای شهری دلپذیر، دلبستگی به مکان، حوزه برنامه ریزی شهری مشارکتی و شهر هوشمند تعیین نمود. همچنین ارزیابی و سنجش محیط ساخته‌ شده، ارزیابی اثرات روان‌شناسانه یک طرح قبل از اجرا، ارائه فرصت‌های نوین طراحی و برنامه‌ریزی شهروند محور از فواید کاربرد موضوع در حوزه شهرسازی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Importance and Application of "Urban Emotions" in Urban Design and Planning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmat Paikan 1
  • MohammadReza Pourjafar 2

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Urban Design & Planning , Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

How citizens perceive and understand their surrounding environment depends on several dynamic and static contextual factors. Such a subjective and context-based understanding can create different emotions and feelings in people, which has created a new and adjunct approach toward studying spatial and temporal structure of the city. Investigating the relationship between built environment as a physical dimension and behavioral and emotional aspects of human has received much attention in recent studies, especially in urban planning and design studies, and has become an urgent issue in recent years. The purpose of theoretical, empirical, and applied researches in this field is generally enhancing the quality of life in city through studying a new layer that focuses on emotional-behavioral aspects of individuals. This emotional-subjective attitude toward space and its impact on the individual’s behavior in space has become important and has been utilized in recent years under the title of “urban emotions” approach, as an interdisciplinary field. Therefore, the present study aimed to introduce the approach and research area of “urban emotions” and sought to examine the importance and application of this layer in the field of urban development as well as studying vacancies in this area, and providing suggestions for future studies. Thus, this was done by referring to library resources and reviewing more than 50 published studies consisting of basic theories on the subject, theories of intellectuals in the field of urban development, and recent projects and researches generally related to the last five years, through descriptive-analytic method and using library resources. 
The results showed that the studies in this area can be divided into two categories of theories and basic studies and new studies initiated by Christine Nold (2009). The basic view mostly focuses on effective environmental factors in a qualitative and highly general way based on traditional methods of emotion measurement, and is mostly focused on environmental psychology and landscape design areas, which has less influenced the area of urban design and urban development. But in recent years, the emergence of new methods of measuring emotions in the field of medical sciences, psychology, and computer sciences has provided the possibility of more precise studies in the field of environmental design. New researches (in the last 5 years) in terms of frequency include four domains: 1) focused on emotion measurement; 2) new methods of emotion measurement; 3) investigating the factors affecting emotion in the environment; and 4) applications of emotion. However, these studies mostly focus on emotion measurement in urban environments and emotion measurement methods, and few studies have also examined the factors affecting emotion in the environment and its application in the field of urban development as a pilot. Therefore, based on ongoing studies in the field of emotion monitoring methods, it has become possible to review and study the theories which are more basic, more applied, and exclusive in the field of urban environment. Also, review of basic theories and recent studies in the field of urban emotions showed the importance of the issue in the field of urban development. Despite the importance and application of this interdisciplinary field in urban studies, the scientific potentials of this new approach in all diverse aspects of urban use and analysis have not yet been explored which requires more precise and extensive evaluation in urban sciences. According to the conducted studies and its adaptation to different areas of urban study, the most important areas of application of this new layer can be: 1) mental health area, 2) happy city and pleasant urban spaces area, 3) Attachment to place area, and 4) area of collaborative urban planning and smart city. Also, evaluation and measurement of the built environment, evaluation of the psychological effects of a plan before its implementation, and providing new citizen-centered designing and planning opportunities are among the benefits of applying the subject in the field of urban development. Overall, the results showed that in recent years, the area of “urban emotions” has opened up a new meta-human approach to analysis and examination of dynamic interactions in time, space, and perception and emotions of human, especially in urban planning and designing processes. “Urban emotions” has proposed a human-centered approach as a mediator between research fields such as geo-informatics, computer science, computational linguistics, sensor technology, citizenship sciences, and spatial planning. The main purpose was to produce a layer of new information that visualizes the measured spatial emotions. This visualization allows for concluding about humans behavior in urban environments and creates a new citizen-centered perspective in designing and planning process. Over the past few decades, new advances have made the use of new methods and technologies possible. However, scientific potential of this process has not been fully exploited, and the possibility of using it for innovative analysis and simulation needs to be widely evaluated in urban sciences. These new data and information layers can provide new insights into the development of intrinsically complex and dynamic physical and social structures of urban environments. It can be used in the field of urban development and can be generalized and used in other related areas such as public health, traffic management, security, tourism, and more.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • emotion
  • Perception
  • Behavior
  • urban space
-      آلتمن، ایروین (۱۳۸۲). محیط و رفتار اجتماعی، علی نمازیان، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
-      بنتلی، ای‌ین؛ الکک، آلن؛ مورین، پال؛ مک گلین، سو؛ اسمیت، گراهام (۱۳۸۲). محیط‌های پاسخده: کتابی راهنما برای طراحان، ترجمه مصطفی بهزادفر، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران.
-      پاکزاد، جهانشاه (۱۳۹۵). سیر اندیشه‌ها در شهرسازی (۳): از فضا تا مکان، تهران: آرمانشهر.
-      کارمونا، متیو و دیگران (1391). مکان‌های عمومی فضاهای شهری، ابعاد گوناگون طراحی شهری، دکتر فریبا قرائی و دیگران، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه هنر.
-      کالن، گوردن (1383). گزیده منظر شهری، منوچهر طبیبیان، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
-      لینچ، کوین (۱۳۹۲). سیمای شهر، منوچهر مزینی، تهران:  انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
-      هال، ادوارد تی (۱۳۹۳). بعد پنهان، دکتر منوچهر طبیبیان، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
-      هدمن، ریچارد؛ اندرو یازوسکی (۱۳۹۰). مبانی طراحی شهری، راضیه رضازاده و مصطفی عباس زادگان، تهران: مرکز انتشا‌رات‌ دانشگا‌ه‌ علم‌ و صنعت‌ ایران‌.
-      Abkar M, Kamal M, Maulan S, Davoodi SR (2011). Determining the visual preference of urban landscapes, Scientific Research & Essays, Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 1991-1997.
-      Anderson PA, Guerrero LK ( 1997). Handbook of Communication and Emotion: Research, Theory, Applications, and Contexts, Massachusetts: Academic Press.
-      Appleyard D (1976). Planning a Pluralistic City, Cambridge: the MIT Press.
-      Batty M, Axhausen KW, Giannotti F, Pozdnoukhov A, Bazzani A, Wachowicz M, Portugali Y (2012). Smart cities of the future, The European Physical Journal Special Topics, Vol. 214, No. 1, pp 481-518.
-      Beatley T ( 2011). Biophilic cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning, Washington: Island Press.
-      Paul A B, C. Greene T, D. Fisher J, S. Baum A (2001). Environmental Psychology, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Press.
-      Bergner BS, Exner JP, Zeile P, Rumberg M (2012). Sensing the city–how to identify recreational benefits of urban green areas with the help of sensor technology. In: Proceedings REAL CORP.
-      Berlyne DE (1974). Aesthetics and psychobiology, New York: Appleton Century Crofts press.
-      Bishop ID, Hull BR (1991). Integrating technologies for visual resource management, Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp 295–312.
-      Brenner N, Marcuse P, Mayer M (2012). Cities for people, not for profit: Critical urban theory and the right to the city, London and New York: Routledge.
-      Butter Worth I (2000). The Relationship between the built environment and wellbeing, Melbourne, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation: http://hiaconnect.edu.au/old/files/Built_Environment_%26_Wellbeing.pdf.
-      Calabrese F, Colonna M, Lovisolo P, Parata D, Ratti C ( 2010). Real-time urban monitoring using cell phones: A case study in rome, Ieee Transactions on intelligent Transportation System.
-      Canter D (1977). The Psychology of Place, London: The Architectural Press.
-      Carbon CC, LEDER H (2005). The wall inside the brain: Overestimation of distances crossing the former iron curtain, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 746-750.
-      Castells M (1996). The rise of the network society, Volume I: The information age. Economy, society, and culture. Hoboken, NJ: Blackwell Publishers.
-      Chourabi H, Nam T, Walker S, Gil-Garcia JR, Mellouli S, Nahon K, Pardo TA, School HJ (2012). Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework, In 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, pp. 2289-2297.
-      Debek M (2014). Towards people’s experiences and behaviours within their worlds. The integrative-transactional framework for studying complex people-environment interactions, Social Space, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 1–55.
-      Dreary A (2004). Impact of our built environmental, Public Health Jurnal of Environmental Health Perspectives , Vol. 112, No. 11, pp. A600-1.
-      Gartner G (2012). Emotional response to space as an additional concept in cartography, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXIX-B4, XXII ISPRS Congress, 25 August – 01 September 2012, Melbourne, Australia.
-      Gifford R, et al (2011). Environment psychology, Oxford: Blackwell publishing Ltd.
-      Gilbert KL (2008). A meta-analysis of social capital and health B.A., Wabash college, M.A. in African American and African Diaspora Studies, Indian university, (Bloomington, IN), 2008 M.P.A., in public Affairs, submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Graduate school of public health in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of public health university of Pittsburgh.
-      Gehl J (2003). Life between buildings: Using public space, Copenhagen: Danish Architectural Press.
-      Gesler W, Bell M, Curtis S, Hubbard P, Francis S (2004). Therapy by design: evaluating the UK hospital building program, Health & Place, Vol. 10, pp. 117–128.
-      Halprin L (1963). Cities, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, Michigan : the University of Michigan.
-      Hamzi Hijazi I, et al (2016) Geostatistical analysis for the study of relationships between the emotional responses of urban walkers to urban spaces, International Journal of E-Planning Research, Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp.1-19
-      Henshaw V, et al (2012) Emotion in Motion: A methodology for investigating emotional response to the streets and urban spaces in hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, IAPS 2012 Conference, Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment, Glasgow.
-      Hogertz C (2010) Emotions of the urban pedestrian: sensory mapping, PQN Final Report-Part B4: Documentation - Measuring Walking , Daniel Sauter & et al, COST (the acronym for European Cooperation in Science and Technology).
-      Iaconesi S, Persico O (2014) An emotional compass: Emotions on social networks and a new experience of cities, Augmented Reality Art: From an Emerging Technology to a Novel Creative Medium edited by Vladimir Geroimenko, ebook, Springer.
-      Iaconesi S, Persico O (2014). Visualising Emotional Landmarks in Cities, arXiv:1412.5583 [cs.HC].
-      Iaconesi S, Persico O (2012). Real-Time Observation and Interaction for Cities Using Information Harvested from Social Networks in International Journal of Art, Culture and Design Technologies (IJACDT) Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp.14–29.
-      James W (1884). What is an Emotion? Oxford Journals, Vol. 9, Issue 34, pp. 188-205.
-      Kahana E, et. al (2003). Person, environment, and person-environment fit as influences on residential satisfaction of elders, Environment and Behaviour, Vol. 35 No. 3, pp. 434-453.
-      Isil Cakci K (2012). Landscape Planning, Edited by Murat Ozyavus, in: Advances in Landscape Architecture ,Namık Kemal University, available at: InTech: DOI: 10.5772/38998.
-      Kanjo E, Al-Husain L, Chamberlain A (2015). Emotions in context: examining pervasive affective sensing systems, applications, and analyses, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 01/2015.
-      Kanjo E, El-Mawass N, Craveiro J, Ramos F (2013). Social disconnected or in between: mobile data reveals urban mood, In: The 3rd international conference on the analysis of mobile phone datasets (NetMob’13), MIT, MA, pp. 9-19.
-      Kaplan S (1979). Perception and landscape: Conceptions and misconceptions, In Proceedings of Our National Landscape Conference, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW 35, pp. 241-248.
-      Leyden KM, Goldberg A, Michelbach Ph (2011). Understanding the pursuit of happiness in ten major cities, Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 861–888.
-      Klettner S, Gartner G (2012). Modelling Affective Responses to Space, Proceedings REAL CORP 2012 Tagungsband, Schwechat.
-      Klettner S, Huang H, Schmidt M, Gartner G (2013). Crowdsourcing affective responses to space, Kartographische Nachrichten, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 66-72.
-      Reinhard Konig, et.al (2014). Using geo statistical analysis to detect similarities in emotional responses of urban space, Sixth International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition (DCC14), June, London, published by ETH, Zurich .
-      Kleinginna JR P, Kleinginna AM ( 1981). A Categorized List of Emotion Definitions, with Suggestions for a ConsensualDefinition, Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp. 345-379.
-      Kloeckl K, Senn O,  Lorenzo GD (2011). LIVE Singapore! - An urban platform for real-time data to program, Journal of Urban Technology ,Volume 19, Issue 2:pp.89-112.
-      Korpela K, Hartig T (1996). Restorative qualities of favorite places, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 16, pp. 221233.
-      Korpela KM (2003). Negative Mood and Adult Place Preference. Environment and Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 331-346.
-      Layard R (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a new science, London: Allen Lane.
-      Li Xin, et al (2016). Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 5, No. 11, pp. 218-227.
-      MacDonald G (2014). Bodies moving and being moved: Mapping affect in Christian Nold's Bio Mapping, Somatechnics. Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 108-132
-      MacKerron G, Mourato S (2013). Happiness is greater in natural environments, Global Environmental Change, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 992–1000.
-      Matei S, Ball-Roceach SJ, QIU JL (2001). Fear and misperception of Los Angeles urban space: A spatial-Statistical study of communication-shaped mental maps, Communication Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 429-463.
-      Mody RN, Willis KS, Kerstein V (2009). WiMo: location-based emotion tagging. In: Proceedings of the 8th international conference on mobile and ubiquitous multimedia, ACM, pp. 14-27.
-      Montgomery Ch (2013). Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design, Macmillan: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
-      Morgan P (2010). Towards a developmental theory of place attachment, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, pp. 11–22.
-      Nold C, Jensen OB, Harder H (2008). Mapping the city: reflections on urban mapping methodologies from GPS to Community Dialogue, Institut for Arkitektur, Design og Medieteknologi, Aalborg, Danmark.
-      Nasar JL (2011). Environment Psychology and urban Design, In, companion to urban design, Edited by Tridib Banerjee, Routledge.
-      Outram C, Ratti C, Bidermann A ( 2010). The Copenhagen Wheel: An innovative electric bicycle system that harnesses the power of real-time information and crowd sourcing, EVER Monaco International.
-      Perrins-Margalis NM, Rugletic J, Schepis NM, Stepanski HR, Walsh MA (2000). The immediate effects of a group-based horticulture experience on the quality of life of persons with chronic mental illness, Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.15-31.
-      Purcell AT (1986). Environment perception and affect, Aschema discrepancy, In Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 13, pp.67-92.
-      Rania R, Al-Hagla Kh, Bakr A (2014). Integration of Emotional Behavioural Layer “EmoBeL” in City Planning, REAL CORP 2014 Tagungsband 21-23 May 2014, Vienna, Austria.
-      Resch B, Summa A, Zeile P, Strube M (2016). Citizen-centric urban planning through extracting emotion information from twitter in an interdisciplinary space-time-linguistics algorithm, Urban Plan, Vol. 1, pp.114–127.
-      Resch B, Sudmanns M, Sagl G, Summa A, Zeile P, Exner JPh (2015). Crowdsourcing physiological conditions and subjective emotions by coupling technical and human mobile sensors, Journal for Geographic Information Science, Vol. 1, pp. 514-524.
-      Russell JA, Snodgrass J (1987). Emotion and the environment, in handbook of environmental psychology, Vol. 1, Daniel Stokols and Irwin Altman, eds, New York, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 245-281.
-      Reeve J ( 2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.), Wiley ed., NJ: Hoboken.
-      Yodan R, Rosenberg Weinreb A (2013). Mapping feeling: An approach to the study of emotional response to built environment and landscape, Journal of architectural and planning research, July 2013.
-      Salesses P, Schechtner K, Hidalgo CA (2013). The collaborative image of the city: mapping the inequality of urban perception, PLOS One, Vol. 8, No. 4, e68400.
-      Scannell L, Gifford R (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 30, pp. 1-10.
-      Shaftoe H (2008). Convivial Urban Spaces: Creating Effective Public Places, London: Earthscan.
-      Tyson
-      GA, Lambert G, Beattie L (2002). The impact of ward design on the behaviour, occupational satisfaction and well-being of psychiatric nurses, International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 94-102.
-      Ulrich RS, Simons RF, Losito BD, Fiorito E, Miles MA, Zelson M (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 201–230.
-      Venturi R (1977). Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, New York: The Museum of Modern Art Press.
-      Zhu H (2009). VEMap: A Visualization Tool for Evaluating Emotional Responses in Virtual Environments, A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo.
-         Zeile P, Resch B, Exner JPh, Sagl G (2015). Urban emotions: Benefits and risks in using human sensory assessment for the extraction of contextual emotion information in urban planning, Planning Support Systems and Smart Cities edited by Geertman, S, et al, Part of the series Lecture Notes in Geo information and Cartography, pp. 209-225.
-         Zeile P, Resch B, Dörrzapf L, Exner JPh (2015). Urban emotions – tools of integrating people’s perception into urban planning, Proceedings REAL CORP 2015 Tagungsband 5-7 May 2015,Ghent, Belgium.