نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری،دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

2 استاد، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

4 استاد، گروه مهندسی طراحی محیط، دانشکده محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کیفیت فضاهای درمانی، شاخصی اساسی در درمان و تسریع زمان بهبودی بیماران است. پژوهش های بسیار در خصوص تاثیرات طبیعت بر سلامت حاکی از آن است که ارتباط با طبیعت در فضای مصنوع تاثیر بسزایی بر کاهش مدت زمان بهبودی بیماران دارد. در سال 2004 کلرت، طراحی بیوفیلیک را تحت عنوان تاثیر مثبت تعامل میان انسان و طبیعت مطرح کرد و هدف اصلی آن در طراحی را ارتقای سلامتی و بهره وری کاربران مطرح کرد. لذا فرض شده است که؛ عملی کردن راهکارهای طراحی بیوفیلیک بر درمان و مدت زمان بهبودی تاثیرگذار است. در این پژوهش بر اساس هدف، روش تحقیق کاربردی، و شیوه مطالعه توصیفی-تحلیلی است. در بخش نظری پژوهش با انجام مرور ادبیات سیستماتیک و تحلیل و بررسی در حوزه طبیعت و سلامت، تئوری ها و شاخصه های سلامتی تاثیر پذیر از ارتباط با طبیعت ارائه شده اند. در بخش عملی پژوهش، 14 الگوی طراحی بیوفیلیک در 5 بیمارستان، استرا سوئد، خو تک پوآت سنگاپور، ان جی تنگ فونگ و جورنگ سنگاپور، دل آستین تگزاس و رویال ملبورن در 3 سطح کلیت مجموعه، سازماندهی بنا و طراحی داخلی اتاق بیماران مورد مقایسه تطبیقی و ارزیابی قرار گرفته اند. در نتیجه کاربردی ترین راهکارهای شفابخش طراحی بیوفیلیک در بیمارستان ها؛ تزئینات با الگوی طبیعت، مصالح طبیعی، واقعیت مجازی، نور طبیعی، استفاده از رایحه گیاهان و توجه به تفاوت های فردی برای استفاده جامعه طراحان و ارتقای کیفیت شفابخشی فصاهای درمانی بدست آمدند. با این حال ارزیابی تجربی و عملی تاثیر الگوهای بیوفیلیک و توسعه مستمر آنها مورد نیاز است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

شاهچراغی، آزاده؛ بندرآباد، علیرضا؛ (1394) محاط در محیط: کاربرد روانشناسی محیطی در معماری و شهرسازی. سازمان جهاد دانشگاهی. تهران.

زیاری، کرامت اله؛ ضرغام فرد، مسلم؛ خادمی، امیرحسین؛ (1394) برنامه ریزی شهری با رویکرد بیوفیلیک (شهر طبیعت محور). آراد. تهران.

Arvay, C. G. (2018). The Biophilia Effect: A Scientific and Spiritual Exploration of the Healing Bond Between Humans and Nature. Sound True. Boulder. Colorado.

Baldwin, R. F. & Powell, R. B. & Kellert, S. R. (2010). Habitat as Architecture: Integrating Conservation Planning and Human Health. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. AMBIO. 40: 322-327.

Beatley, T. (2017). Biophilic Cities and Healthy Societies. Urban Planning. 2(4): 1-4.

Bratman, G. N. & Hamilton, J. P. & Daily, G. C. (2012). The impact of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health. Ann. N.Y. Acad. 1249: 118-136.

Bratman, G. N. & Daily, G. C. & Levy, B. J. & Gross, J. J. (2015). The benefits of nature experience: Improved affect and cognition. Landscape and Urban Planning. 138: 41-50.

Browning, W. & Ryan, C. & Clancy, J. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design: Improving Health & Well-being in The Built Environment. Terrapin Bright Green, LLC. www.TerapinBrightGreen.com

Brymer, Eric. & Cuddihy, T. F. & Sharma-Brymer V. (2010). The Role of Nature-Based Experiences in the Development and Maintenance of Wellness. Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Human Movement. Queensland University of Technology.

Bowler, D. E. & Buyung-Ali, L. M. & Knight, T. M. & Pullin, A. S. (2010). A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits of health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health. 10: 456.

Coon, J. T. & Boody, K. & Stein, K. & Whear, R. & Barton, J. & Depledge, M. H. (2011). Dose participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental well-being than physical activity indoors? A systematic review.  Environ Sci Technol. 45(5): 1761-1772.

Cox, D. T. & Hudson, H. L. & Shanahan, D. F. & Fuller, R. A. (2017). The rarity of direct experiences of nature in an urban population. Landscape and Urban Planning. 150: 79-84.

Cox, D. T. & Gaston, K. J. (2018). Human-nature interactions and the consequences and drivers of provisioning wildlife. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 373: 20170092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0092.

Cox, D. T. & Shanahan, D. F. & Hudson, H. L. & Fuller, R. A. & Gaston, K. J. (2018). The impact of urbanization on nature dose and the implications for human health. Landscape and Urban Planning. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.07.013.

Depledge, M. H. & Stone, R. J. & Bird, W. J. (2011). Can natural and Virtual Environments Be Used To Promote Improved Human Health and Wellbeing? Environmental Science & Technology. 45: 4660-4665.

From, L. & Lundin S. (2017). Ostra hospital Case Study. http://www.terrapinbg.com.17.03.2018

Fromm. E. (1963). War Within Man: A Psychological Enquiry into the Roots of Destructiveness. National Peace Literature Service (AFSC). Philadelphia. Pennsylvania.

Frumkin, H. (2008). Nature Contact and Human Health: Building the Evidence Base. 7: 107-118. In Kellert, S. R. & Heerwagen, J. H. (2008). Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Building to Life. John Wiely & Sons. Inc. Hoboken. New Jersey.

Frumkin, H. & Bratman, G. N. & Breslow, S. J. & Cochran, B. & Kahn, P. H. & Lawler, J. J. & Levin, P. S. & Tandon, P. S. & Varanasi, U. & Wolf, K. L. & Wood, S. A. (2017). Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda. Environmental Health Perspectives. http://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663. 075001: 1-18.

Gray, T. & Birrell, C. (2014). Are Biophilic-Designed Site Office Buildings Linked to Health Benefits and High Performing Occupants? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 11: 12204-12222.

Gillis, K. & Gatersleben, B. (2015). A Review of Psychological Literature on the Health and Wellbeing Benefits of Biophilic Design. Buildings. www.mdpi.com/journal/buildings/. 5: 948-963.

Grinde, B. (2009). Can the concept of discords help us find the causes of mental diseases? Med Hypothesis. 73: 106-109.

Grinde, B. & Patil, G. G. (2009). Biophilia: Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health and Well-Being? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6: 2332-2343.

Hartig, T. & et al. (2011). Health Benefits of Nature Experience: Psychological, Social and Cultural Processes. Chapter 5 in: Nilsson, k. & Sangster, M. & Gallis, C. & Hartig, T. & Vries, S. & Seeland, K. & Schipperijin, J. (2011). Forests, Trees and Human Health. Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London.

Hartig, T. & Mitchell, R. & Vries, S. & Frumkin, H. (2014). Nature and Health. Annu. Rev. Public Health. 35: 207-228.

Hettler, B. (1976). The Six Dimensions of Wellness Model. National Wellness Institute, Inc. 1-2.

Janssen, I. & LeBlanc, AG. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavior Nutr. Phys. Act. 7:40.

Kellert, S. R. (2004). Beyond LEED: From Low Environmental Impact to Restorative Environmental design. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities Conference. Sponsored by Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. Toronto. CA. and City of Portland.

Kellert, S. R. (2005). Building for Life: Designing and Understanding the Human-Nature Connection. Island Press. United States of America.

Kellert, S. R. & Heerwagen, J. H. (2008). Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Building to Life. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Hoboken. New Jersey.

Kellert, S. R. (2012). Birthright: people and nature in the modern world. Yale University Press. United States of America.

Kellert, S. R. & Calabrese, E. F. (2015). The practice of Biophilic Design. www.biophilic-design.com.

Kellert, S. R. (2018). Nature by Design: The Practice of Biophilic Design. Yale University Press. New Haven & London.

Keniger, L. E. & Gaston, K. J. & Irvine, K. N. & Fuller, R. A. (2013). What are the Benefits of Interacting with Nature? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10:913-935.

Kishnani, N. (2017). Singapore’s Khoo Teck Puat Hospital: Biophilic Design in Action. http://blog.interface.com/khoo-teck-puat-hospital-singapore-biophilic-design/ 21.01.2018

Li, Q. & Kobayashi M. & Wakayama, Y. & Inagaki, H. & Katsumata, M. & Hirata, Y. & Shimizu, T. & Kawad, T. & Park, Bj. & Ohira, T. & Kagawa, T. & Miyazaki, Y. (2009). Effect of Phytoncide from Trees on Human Natural Killer Cell Function. International Journal of Immunopathology. 22(4):951-959.

Mcsweeney, J. & Rainham, D. & Johanson, S. A. & Sherry, S. B. & Singleton, J. (2014). Indoor nature exposure (INE): a health-promotion framework. Health Promotion International. 30(1): 126-139.

Mazuch, R. (2017). Salutogenic and Biophilic Design as Therapeutic Approaches to Sustainable Architecture. IBI Group. 42-47.

Nilsson, k. & Sangster, M. & Gallis, C. & Hartig, T. & Vries, S. & Seeland, K. & Schipperijin, J. (2011). Forests, Trees and Human Health. Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London.

Ottosson, J. & Lavesson, L. & Pinzke, S. & Grahn, P. (2015). The Significance of Experiences of Nature for People with Parkinson’s Diseases, with Special Focus on Freezing of Gait-The Necessity for a Biophilic Environment. A Multi-Method Single Subject Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12: 7274-7299.

Ryan, C. O. & Browning, W. D. & Clancy, J. O. & Andrews, S. L. & Kallianpurkar, N. B. (2014). Biophilic Design Patterns: Emerging Nature-Based Parameters for Health and Well-Being in the Built Environment. International Journal of Architectural Research. 8(2): 62-76.

Seymour, V. (2016). The Human-Nature Relationship and Its Impact on Health: A Critical Review. Frontiers in Public Health. 4: 1-12.

Salingaros, N. A. (2015). Biophilia & Healing Environments. Terrapin Bright Green. 1-44.

Siu Yu Lau, S. & Gou, Z. & Liu, Y. (2014). Healthy Campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines. Frontiers of Architectural Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2014.06.006.

Shanahan, D. F. & Bush, R. & Gatson, K. J. & Lin, B. B. & Dean, J. & Barber, E. & Fuller, R. A. (2016). Health Benefits from Nature Experiences Depend on Dose. Scientific Reports. www.nature.com/scientificreports. 6: 28551.

Soderlund, J. & Newman, P. (2015). Biophilic Architecture: a review of the rationale and outcomes. AIMS Environmental Science. 2(4): 950-969.

Soderlund, J. & Newman, P. (2017). Improving Mental Health in Prisons Through Biophilic Design. The Prison Journal. 97(6): 750-772.

Soga, M. & Gaston, K. J. (2016). Extinction of experience: the loss of human-nature interactions. The Ecological Society of America. 14(2): 94-101.

Svalastog, A. L. & Donev, D. & Kristoffersen, N. J. & Gajovic, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croat Med Journal, 58:431-435.

Totaforti, S. (2018). Applying the benefits of biophilic theory to hospital design. City,Territory and Architecture. 5:1-9.

Walch, J. M.  & Rabin, B. S. & Day, R. & Williams, J. N. & Choi, K. & Kang, J. D. (2005). The effect of sunlight on post-operative analgesic medication usage: a prospective study of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Psychosom Med. 67:156-163.

Williams, F. (2018). The Nature Fix: Why Nature Makes Us Happier, Healthier, and More creative. W. W. Norton & company. New York | London.

Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia: The human bond with other species. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England.

Wilson, E. O. & Kellert, S. R. (1993). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Island Press. United States of America.

Yin, J. & Zhu, S. & MacNaughton, P. & Allen, J. G. & Spengler, J. D. (2018). Physiological and cognitive performance of exposure to biophilic indoor environment. Building and Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.006.

Yoong, Y. (2012). Designing for health and well-being. New Straits Times. Fri. Nov. 16:6-7.

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/bio-   25.02.2015

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/bio#nav2    25.02.2015