مسائل طراحی بر خلاف مسائل علوم تجربی، دارای ماهیتی بدساختار و بدتعریف بوده و مسیرهای شفاف و چارچوب های از پیش تعیین شده ای برای حل آن ها وجود ندارد. با توجه به این که طراحان مبتدی فاقد تجربه کافی در مواجهه با این مسائل هستند، ممکن است در حل آن ها دچار سردرگمی شده و به کپی برداری و یا تبعیت کامل از رویکرد مدرس روی آورند که نتیجه آن ممانعت از ارتقاء مهارت و خلاقیت در آن ها می باشد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش دستیابی به راهکاری برای تغییر ماهیت مسئله بد ساختار طراحی به مسئله ای نسبتاً خوش ساختار و بهره گیری از آن در آموزش طراحان مبتدی بوده است. این هدف با تبیین مدلی جهت قاب بندی مسئله طراحی با بهره گیری از نمونه آثار پیشین طراحی که اصطلاحاً سوابق طراحی نامیده می شود، پی گرفته شد. این مدل پیشنهادی بر اساس روش تحقیق شبه تجربی مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. بدین منظور ابتدا 28 نفر از دانشجویان ترم 4 رشته معماری در دو گروه شاهد و آزمون دسته بندی شدند، سپس اعضاء گروه شاهد بدون بهره گیری از سوابق طراحی و تنها بر پایه تجارب قبلی و اعضاء گروه آزمون با استفاده از مدل پیشنهادی و بر اساس ترکیب نمونه هایی از سوابق طراحی، تمرین مورد نظر را انجام دادند. نتایج حاصل نشان داد طرحواره های گروه آزمون در مقایسه با طرحواره های گروه شاهد میانگین امتیاز بالاتری را کسب کردند. همچنین بهره گیری از مدل پیشنهادی موجب کاهش احتمال تقلید و افزایش تنوع در طرحواره های گروه آزمون گردید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Design as problem solving; a model based on design precedents
Objective and Background: Novice designers in design workshops are constantly finding themselves on the quest for an elegant solution to design problems. Still, a large portion of educators and professors are not able to, or willing to, define a distinct course for this quest, thus leading to problems of disorientation for these novice designers. However, it is noteworthy that the paths and processes for reaching such an ideal are absolutely unique to each designer, as at least some part of this process is intuitive and exploratory. Thus no same pattern can be handed out to all designers. Yet, this does not mean that students and novice designers can obtain their design formula without any external guidance from their instructors and relying only on inner instinct.
Methods: This study seeks to provide a clear and systematic model based on the previously discussed design records to prevent plagiarism and assist novice designers in solving the design problem, especially in response to the aesthetic aspects of the design that do not have any explicit assessment criteria. Considering that the causal relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is examined in this research, and the independent research variable, i.e., the educational model provided for teaching architectural design, can be manipulated by the researcher, this research is a quasi-experimental study. For this purpose, firstly, 28 students from the 4th semester of architecture were divided into two groups of control and experiment. The control group members then performed the desired exercise (study desk design) without using design records and only based on previous experiences. At the same time, the experimental group members were offered the proposed model and were free to use the design records. In the next stage, students’ schemas were scored using the self-assessment method, and the opinion of experts (professors of architecture) and the data were analyzed.
Findings: The path that scientists of different fields take to solve the problem, no matter how difficult and challenging, ultimately has a very clear and well-structured nature. However, the same is not valid for the design problem. This effect is more pronounced in the early works of novice designers. It is given that the various paths and stages of this process cannot be clearly observed and explained. In fact, the designer’s mind shapes new designs within mind what is perceived from nature, geometry, and samples of previous works, among others, by analyzing and combining elements therein. It can be argued that designing would not be simply feasible without having an intellectual archive of design resources in mind. The experience of facing design problems is critically involved in achieving their solutions. As such, novice designers and students who lack sufficient experience may be easily disoriented in solving design problems. Meanwhile, examples of prior works and projects, scientifically known as design records, are the most extensively used resources by designers, especially novice ones. Without a clear pattern and framework for exploiting these design records, risks such as tumbling into the trap of plagiarism and blind adherence to the teacher’s approach threaten the design, leading to their repressed skills development.
Conclusion: Design problems, unlike problems within the realm of experimental science, are mostly struck with poor structures and have ill-defined nature. There are no concrete paths and predefined frameworks for solving design problems. The main purpose of this study was to propose an approach to changing the nature of ill-structured design problems to a relatively well-structured one and thus employing the use of it in training novice designers. This goal was followed by proposing a model for framing the design problem using examples from previous design works. It should be noted that still the ultimate goal of the present study was to discover solutions for better learning and improving the skills of novice designers, rather than achieving an innovative and perfect design. The results of this study revealed that designing based on the proposed model alleviates the confusion of the novice designer especially in the early stages of working on design problems, while encourages facing the challenges of improving design skills, all of which is achieved by employing such a clear and systematic way. Nonetheless, the comparison of the works of the tested students showed better results and yielded higher scores for the group that developed their design using the proposed framework. Moreover, employing the proposed model reduced the probability of plagiarism and led to increased variety in the experimental group's schemas. The results showed that the experimental group's schemata compared with the schemata of the control group, received a higher average score. Using the proposed model reduced the probability of imitation and increased diversity in the experimental group schemas.