باز زندهسازی فضای شهری و استخوانبندی اصلی آن فراهمکننده زمینه رشد و به مثابه اهرمی برای توسعه شهر است. عناصر طبیعی بخشی از منظر طبیعی هستند که در نتیجهی همپوشانی و تعامل میان انسان و طبیعت پدید میآیند. از آنجایی که عناصر طبیعی کارکردی چندگانه از جمله ایجاد فضاهای جمعی، غنای بصری و زیستمحیطی، ایجاد حس تعلق به مکان، مطبوعیت محیطی و نظایر این را دارند، لذا احیاء و باز زندهسازی مناظر طبیعی در شهر از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار میباشد. اهمیت این موضوع در خصوص رودهای شهری واقع در مناطق شمالی کشور به دلیل نقش و کارکردهای ویژه آن دوچندان میباشد. نهر شهررود آمل که از دل محلات تاریخی شهر آمل میگذرد یکی از بارزترین منابع طبیعی شهر تاریخی آمل است که نقش مؤثری بر شکلگیری شهر تاریخی آمل و محلات ایفا میکند. هدف اصلی این تحقیق دستیابی به اصول، راهبردها و راهکارهایی جهت باز زندهسازی منظر طبیعی رودهای شهری به ویژه در خصوص مورد مطالعاتی یعنی نهر شهررود آمل است، به گونهای که بتواند در ابعاد کالبدی، عملکردی و محیط زیستی تعاملی سازنده را بین استفادهکنندگان و محیط طبیعی برقرار سازد. تحقیق حاضر با استفاده از روش تحلیلی-توصیفی به انجام رسیده است که در آن برای جمعآوری اطلاعات از اسناد کتابخانهای و برداشت از محدوده به روش میدانی (بهرهبرداری از عکسها و تصاویر ماهوارهای و غیره) شده و ارزیابی و بهرهگیری از تجارب موفق داخلی و خارجی نیز در روند پژوهش مورد توجه بوده است. نتایج حاصل نشان میدهد در صورتی که بتوان با باز زندهسازی فضاهای غیرقابل استفاده مسیر و جدارههای نهر شهررود آمل را به عنوان کمیتی مؤثر بر کیفیت منظر شهری بدان نقش داد، میتوان از این محوری که از شمال به جنوب شهر گسترده است برای پاسخگویی به فعالیتها و نیازهای مردم شهر بهرهمند گردید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Revitalization of the Landscape of Urban Rivers with an Approach to Positive Interaction between Human and the Natural Environment; (Case Study: the River of Amol Shahr-roud)
Iranians have realized the value of human-nature relationships within cities for thousands of years and have been pioneers in creating this relationship. That is to say, simultaneous with human settlements in fixed locations and emergence of cities, the nature of those areas in general, and in particular, the land, surface waters (rivers, lakes, marshes, and ponds) and groundwater were exploited and transformed. The advent of the European Industrial Revolution and its following evolutions in the 19th and 20th centuries led to major changes in people’s lifestyles, as a result of which, human being, thinking to domination over nature and exploitation of it, started to destruct the nature and over time, these changes became more intense such that land became an economic commodity. In the present century also, due to the growth of urbanization and intensification of changes in the way human beings think about nature, the long-standing equilibrium of man and nature has tended toward human’s dominance over nature. However, since a few decades ago, the need for a change in attitude toward nature was emphasized; that is, the shift in attitude toward the earth from perceiving it as a commodity for human use and benefit to perceiving nature and landscape as a matter of particular values and restoration of the sense of connection between human being and the earth on which it lives. In other words, today human beings believe in their adaptation to nature in the framework of environmental sustainability and maintenance as access to open and green spaces is the key to human health.
The rapid growth of suburbs due to uncontrolled constructions, population growth, rapid suburban changes, and increased urban wastes and industrial wastes are all threats that endanger the planet and the future of human life, some of its symptoms are already present which have emerged as destructive changes, increased natural disasters, and climate change. With the trend that today’s human is following, many habitats will soon be destroyed by human activities and all of the human cultural heritage which is part of the natural environment will be destroyed. These undesirable changes and consequences are the results of the inaccurate method of designing and constructing separated from the natural substrate and in line with destroying it. The balance between man and nature was governed by nature. In the 19th century, with the rapid development of technology and the subsequent increase in urbanization process destroyed the long-standing equilibrium of human and nature. So, by reflecting on the relationship between man and nature throughout history and the process of human domination over it, solutions can be found to adapt the constructions to the environment and landscape and to prevent the current acceleration toward the destruction of cultural-natural diversity.
Natural elements are part of the natural landscape that arises as a result of the overlap and interaction between human and nature. Thus, the revitalization of urban space and its main structure provides the basis for growth and is as a lever for urban development. Natural elements are part of the natural landscape that arises as a result of the overlap and interaction between human and nature. Since natural elements have multiple functions such as creation of social spaces, visual and environmental richness, creation of a sense of belonging to the place, environmental utility, and so on, therefore, restoration and revitalization of natural landscapes in the city are very important. This issue would be more important in urban rivers located in the northern regions of Iran due to their special role and functions. The river of Amol Shahr-roud, which flows from the historical sites of Amol city, is one of the most prominent natural resources of the historical city of Amol which plays an important role in the formation of the historic city of Amol and its districts. The main purpose of the present study is to achieve some principles, strategies, and solutions for revitalizing the natural landscape of urban rivers especially regarding the case study, the River of Amol Shahr-roud such that it can establish a positive interaction between users and the natural environment in physical, functional and environmental aspects.The present study was done in descriptive-analytical method and library documents and field method (use of satellite images, etc.) were used to collect the data. The successful domestic and foreign experiences and the principles of its application to the interaction between human and nature in these cities have also been analyzed. The results show that if it is possible to recreate the role of Amol Shahr-Roud as an effective element on quality of urban landscape by revitalization of the unusable spaces in the route and the Amol Shahr-Roud river walls along the route, it will be possible to take advantage from this river that is spread from the north to the south of the city to respond to the needs and activities of the city people. This study also indicates that the River of Amol Shahr-roud as a domestic river plays an important role in physical landscape, and social and environmental life of the texture of ancient neighborhoods which are recognized as physical, social, and environmental capitals of the natural landscape of the city and affect so much on linear and flexural formation, spatial hierarchy, walking routes, public facilities, integration of environmental elements, and ecological sustainability of the environment and its ecosystem.