یکی از آسیبهای معماری معاصر ایران تضعیف هویت و مولفههای آن مانند حس تعلق به مکان است که در نتیجه کمتوجهی به ابعاد معناشناختی و خوانش اثر در ایدهپردازی طراحی و آموزش ایجاد میشود.نشانهها به عنوان شاخصترین عوامل معنایی و موثر بر خوانش، میتوانند عاملی مؤثر در ارتقای حس مکان و هویت از طریق ارتباط با مخاطب باشند. این درحالی است که امروزه غالبا کپی برداری از نمونهها، روش اصلی ایدهپردازی در سطوح آموزشی است که به بیهویتی منجر خواهد شد. پیشینه پژوهش عمدتا بر تحقیقاتی اشاره دارد که بر الگوهای طراحی، ادبیات موضوع نشانه و عوامل موثر بر خوانش و نیز منابع برداشت ایده و بررسی جایگاه آن در فرآیند طراحی تمرکز یافتهاند و در این میان خلا رویکرد معنامحوری در ایدهپردازی محسوس است. سوالات تحقیق بر چیستی عوامل موثر بر فرایند ایدهپردازی و نیز چگونگی روابط میان آنها در جریان آموزش معنامحور طراحی از دیدگاه نشانهشناختی اشاره دارد. پژوهش در راستای دستیابی به هدف اصلاح فرآیندهای آموزش طراحی در مرحله ایدهپردازی با بهرهگیری از اصول نشانهشناسی در ساحت خوانش مخاطب، به تحلیل مسیر، تحلیل عامل و سپس مدلیابی میپردازد. از آنجا که بهرهگیری از مبانی نشانهشناسی مستلزم توجه به عوامل «انسانی»، «زمانی» و «مکانی»ِ موثر بر تصورات ذهنی است، بر این اساس و از طریق روشهای تحقیق کیفی درکنار روشهای پیمایشی و همبستگی، مهمترین مولفههای موثر بر فرآیند ایدهپردازی "تحلیل پژوهشمحور"، "ابعاد زیباییشناختی"، "ابعاد روانشناختی"، "ارزیابی خوانشمحور جمعی نشانهها" شناسایی شد و مدل پیشنهادی، به صورت فرآیند چرخهای با محوریت ارزیابی ادراک مخاطبان معرفی گردید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The modeling of idea process in design architecture training by semiotic approach (Case study: designing of residence)
One of the Iranian architecture problems is loss of identity and It’s factors such as sense of place that is created by neglecting to meaning’s aspect and readability in ideation of designing and teaching. Because the designing’s meaning and indicators are effective factors in the creation of identity, beauty and pleasure of architectural work via giving rise to an internal perception of space .Semiotics as the most important meaning factors, can be effective in upgrading sense of place for better relationship between architecture and users. The use of the principles of the science of semiotics is one of the best solutions to the investigation of the way meaning is granted to space . That is because, as the most distinct semantic factors in creating mental associations via relying on the concept of implication, symbols can be effective factors in enhancing the sense of place in relation to the audience.Thus, the use of semiotics from the perspective of the designer’s relationship with the audience in teaching designing can be a step towards granting meaning to space and creating a sense of place in the audience .While the imitation and coping of samples are overcome mostly that this is resulting to lack of identity and social culture. Since ideation is one of the most seminal and most important parts in the process of designing and its teaching, such harm as the negligence of the meaning in the designing process can also be traced in ideation part, as well; because the final result of designing is the representation and reflection of the ideas. The literature review including “patterns of design’’, ‘sign’’ and effective factors on readability’’ shows that previous researches concentrate on the references of ideas, introducing the creation idea’s position in designing process. So meaningful approaches in idea are needed. The first questions of research is “what’s the effective factors on creation of ideation process”and the second question is “How is the relationship between the effective factors in process of meaningful design teaching based on semiotic’’. For the using of semiotic, it’s should be attention to ‘human’, ‘time’and ‘place’factors that are effective on mental images. This research uses qualitative research method and the path and factor analysis and the modeling for obtaining the goal of designing process training correction in ideas levels by semiotic with perceptions of users. The study method can be defined in two phases. In the first phase, use was made of a survey study method of the cross-sectional type for exploring the society of the users and correlation was the method of choice in the second phase. The survey study method begins without any presumption . In the present article, the group ideas of the architecture students and their professors have been collected regarding the study subject based on which a questionnaire was designed and, in the end, based on this information, the effective concepts and variables were identified and the factor analysis was conducted. The second phase of the research begins with the assumption obtained from the survey study method. In this stage, the resultant hypotheses and the theoretical documents and foundations are utilized to model the variables’ interrelationships. The study method is of descriptive-analytical type in terms of the writing method because, besides illustrating the real matters, the reasons of the quality in which the problem’s status is found, are explicated and elaborated. The result shows that “research based analysis”, “aesthetics aspects”, “psychologists aspects” and “collective perception based evaluation of signs” are the effective factors in creation of idea process. The proposed model are introducing a cycle that concentrate on evaluation of user’s perception by signs. Based on the model, the research-oriented analysis is the factor directly influencing the dependent variable as well as the aesthetical aspects which have been per se influenced by the research-oriented analysis as the intermediary variable because aestheticism can change based on the social culture and background of each plan. Thus, it is necessary to recognize the aesthetical aspects in the social culture of the plan’s background through performing research-oriented analysis in the process of teaching designing. On the other hand, it per se directly influences such factors as ideation and collective reading-oriented evaluation of the signs. Another intermediary variable that is influential on the dependent variable based on the model is the aesthetical aspects because one of the factors influencing the reading of the signs in the work is psychological issues. Since reading orientation and paying attention to the audience is one of the principles of semiotics, the collective reading-oriented evaluation of signs, as well, plays a role as another intermediary variable in the formation of the model, as it is suggested parallel to the increase in the audience’s satisfaction of the plan as well as paying attention to their notions and needs; also, the designer’s idea is also exposed to the audience’s collective evaluation and it will be forming the ideation process through influencing the “research-oriented analysis” in case of being completely satisfactory. That is because the dissatisfaction of the idea attests inadequacy and/or imprecision in the ground-identification as well as the semiotic researches. Hence, the ideation is repeated until the achievement of the audience’s satisfaction in the evaluation stage.