نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری معماری،گروه معماری، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

محراب مساجد اهمیت نمادین و کالبدی در معماری اسلامی دارد. محراب‌های قرن هفتم تا اواسط قرن هشتم هجری مقارن با دوره ایلخانی از ارزش و اعتبار خاصی برخوردار بوده و زیباترین و نفیس‌ترین آرایه‌ها و کتیبه‌ها را در خود جای داده‌اند. مساجد جامع تبریز و مرند از مهم‌ترین بناهای مذهبی تاریخ معماری و در زمره‌ی بهترین نمونه‌های برجای مانده در زمینه تزئینات ایلخانی در منطقه آذربایجان هستند. این مقاله با هدف شناخت بخشی از هنر ایرانی اسلامی، سعی در بررسی آرایه‌های تزئینی محراب مساجد جامع تبریز و مرند دارد.  شیوه‌ی پژوهش در این مقاله روش تحقیق تطبیقی بوده و شامل بررسی ترکیب‌بندی کالبدی و تزئینات محراب در هر دو مسجد می‌‌باشد. در نمونه‌های مورد بررسی مفهوم تداوم در نقوش اسلیمی و هندسی گچبری‌ها از دوره سلجوقی تا دوره ایلخانی به صورت آژده‌کاری‌های شش ضلعی و استفاده از گل رزت نمودار است. وجود یک فرم تزئینی قرینه در گچبری دو گوشه کتیبه نوشتاری محراب مسجد جامع تبریز باعث انقطاع متن شده و با نوشتار یکپارچه و زاویه‌دار متن در محراب مسجد جامع مرند تفاوت محسوسی دارد. انتخاب و نمود هنرمندانه‌ی آموزه‌های اسلامی مبتنی بر خلوص نیت در کتیبه‌ها نمایشی از محوریت دین در دوره ایلخانی است. پارادایم وحدت در کثرت، علی‌رغم تفاوت تناسبات در تعریف کالبدی محراب‌ها، تنوع موتیف‌های مورد استفاده در کتیبه‌ها، ساختار متفاوت تدوین و طرح محراب‌ها با توجه به ابعاد پهنه پیشانی، فرم طاق‌نماها و ستون‌نماها، به شکل حسی واحد در ادراک مکان محراب در هر دو مسجد مشهود است. مهم‌ترین دلیل دریافت حسی فضای محراب به صورت یکسان و متشابه در هر دو مسجد به تاثیرگذاری شاخص بصری مصالح گچی، شاخص معنوی مفاهیم قرآنی و شاخص فرامرزی خط کوفی عربی معطوف می‌شود.

چکیده تصویری

مطالعه تطبیقی محراب‌های مساجد جامع تبریز و مرند

تازه های تحقیق

- مفهوم تداوم در نقوش اسلیمی و هندسی گچبری‌ها از دوره سلجوقی تا دوره ایلخانی به صورت آژده‌کاری‌های شش ضلعی و استفاده از گل رزت
- انتخاب و نمود هنرمندانه‌ی آموزه‌های اسلامی مبتنی بر خلوص نیت در کتیبه‌ها 
- دریافت حسی فضای محراب به صورت یکسان و متشابه در هر دو مسجد به جهت تاثیرگذاری شاخص بصری مصالح گچی، شاخص معنوی مفاهیم قرآنی و شاخص فرامرزی خط کوفی عربی

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Altars in the Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Toofan 1
  • Amir Jodaei 2

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: The altar is the most prominent architectural sign pointing out the qibla. The altar of mosques bears a symbolic and physical significance in Islamic architecture. Over the centuries, altars have scarcely undergone any change. The altars of the seventh century to the middle of the eighth century AH, which coincided with the Ilkhanate period, had a special value and prestige and contained the most beautiful and exquisite tablets and inscriptions. In Ilkhanate mosques, the altar was considered the most important part of the spatial environment and has been the main platform for artists' exhibition of their genius. The stucco altars of the Ilkhanate period are considered to be the most exquisite, both in terms of the frequency of patterns and their fine figures and arrays, and have created unique visual effects, the value and significance of which is further pronounced owing to their inscriptions. Stucco altars are one of the most widely used altars built during this period. The grand mosques of Tabriz and Marand are among the most important religious buildings throughout the history of architecture. They are in the caliber of the best samples left in the field of Ilkhanate decorations in the region of Azerbaijan. The lack of significant studies on the Ilkhanate altars of the grand mosques of Tabriz and Marand, in terms of reviewing the aesthetic values ​​and content features of inscriptions and motifs, further highlights the necessity to recognize and compare these altars.
Methodes:This research seeks to examine the decorative motifs of the altars of the grand mosques of Tabriz and Marand to recognize a part of Iranian Islamic art. This research employs a comparative methodology using physical content analysis. To this end, the altars of Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand from the Ilkhanate period are selected since they are unique in platform, design, and construction technique in East Azarbaijan province and include readable and legible inscriptions, motifs, and decorations. Therefore, through collecting information from library and field studies and photographing the site, the appearance, geometric ornaments, and floral and Islamic motifs of the stuccos, and verses and fonts used in the altar are identified in both samples. Then, comparative research methods are used to compare, describe, and interpret the themes and relationships of verses and text with each other and their site.
Findings: In the studied samples, the concept of consistency in Islamic and geometric motifs of stuccos from the Seljuk period to the Ilkhanate period is exhibited in the form of hexagonal renders and rosettes. The existence of symmetrical decorative figures on the stucco of the two corners of the written inscription on the altar of the Grand Mosque of Tabriz has caused the text to be broken up. It is significantly different from the unified and angled text in the altar of the Grand Mosque of Marand. The artistic selection and manifestation of Islamic teachings based on the purity of intention in the inscriptions is a demonstration of the centrality of religion in the Ilkhanate period. The correlation of the concepts of symmetry, balance, proportionality, similarity, and geometry is readily perceivable in the physical definition of the altar of the Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand. Despite the apparent differences in terms of proportions, physical composition for main and decorative pillars, the differences in the width of the frontal face of the altars, the diversity in the margins, arch designs, and the texts, fonts, and contents of the inscriptions, the only unifying and symbolic element of Ilkhanate art in terms of the use of plaster and stucco decorations defines a common sense of the altar in both places and leads to the similarity of the nature in both works. In terms of identity, the visual indicator of the white plaster is a symbol of purity and a reference to the oneness of the deity. The arrangement of the stucco decorations of both altars with naturalistic abstract motifs in various Islamic forms bears an exhibition of the paradigm of unity in plurality and the appearance of God's spirit, in the form of architecture and stucco art of the altar, which is visualized through the hands of religious artists. The paradigm of unity in plurality is evident in a unified sense through the perception of the spatial features of the altar in both mosques. The concept of consistency in the architecture of the altars of the Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand clearly emerges through the study of Islamic and geometric patterns of stuccos from the Seljuk period to the Ilkhanate period. Hexagonal renders and rosettes are the most important continuous motifs used in the studied altars. Considering the location of both mosques, the Azeri language and dialect, and the Persian font have not impacted the development of the symbolic feature of the Muslim qibla, i.e., the altar. It seems evident that the Arabic language and the Kufic script play a more prominent role in the inscriptions of the Ilkhanate period as a unifying cross-border character, since the inscriptions of order, construction, and identification of the master craftsman are also written and executed in the Arabic language. The qualitative format of Islamic art in the alters of the Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand shapes their spiritual aspect. This feature further exhibits the centrality of religion in the arts of the Ilkhanate period and offers a uniform definition of the architecture of the place of worship in the application of heavenly verses of the altar.
Conclusion: The most important findings of the research are the visual index of plaster, the spiritual manifestation of the application of divine themes related to the architecture of the mosque and its components by the spiritually devoted artists, and the index of transnational and unifying Arabic calligraphy in explaining the altars of Grand Mosques of Tabriz and Marand.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • comparative study
  • Architecture
  • Altar
  • Tabriz and Marand Grand Mosques
  1. Abyar, M. (2003). Barresi-ye katibe-haye Mehrab-haye Sangi dar Mouse-ye Melli-ye Iran [Investigating the Inscriptions of Stone Altars in the National Museum of Iran]. Athar Journal, (35), 74-97 
  2. Bayani, Sh. (2008). The Mongols and Ilkhani Rule in Iran. Tehran: SAMT
  3. Dibaj, E. (1974). Asare Bstani va Abni-ye Tarikhi-e Azerbaijan [Antiquities and Historical Buildings of Azerbaijan]. Tehran: Publication of the Central Council of the imperial Celebration of Iran
  4. Wilber, D. (1987). The Architecture of Islamic Iran, (Translated from English to Persian by A. Faryar). Tehran: Elmi Farhangi Publication
  5. Esmaili Sangari, H. & Eilaei, V. (2015). Deciphering of Immovable Inscription Documents in World Heritage of Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex, Journal of Research in Islamic Architecture,2(5), 107-134
  6. Fazaeli, H. (1983). Atlas-e Khatt, Tahghighi dar khotout-e Islami [Altars of Calligraphy, Research in Islamic Calligraphy]. Isfahan: Mashal Publication
  7. Jalali Aziziyan, H. (1998). Tarikh-e Marand [History of Marand]. Mshhad: Gohar Sayyah Publication
  8. Javadi, Sh. (1971). Tabriz va Piramoon [Tabriz and its Surrounding]. Tabriz: Publication of Pahlavi Cultural Foundation
  9. Karang, A. (1995). Asar-e Bastani-ye Azerbaijan-Asar va Abni-ye Tarikhi-e Sharestan-e Tabriz [Antiquies of Azerbaijan –Historical monuments and Building of Tabriz City]. Tehran: Rasti-No, Associationn of Cultural Works and Honors
  10. Makki Nejad, M. & Ayatollahi, H. & Harati, M.M. (2009). Tanasob va Tarkib dar Mehrab-e Masjed Jame-e Tabriz [Proportion and Composition in the Inscription of the Altar of Tabriz Jame Mosque]. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba, Honar-Ha-Ye-Tajassomi, (40), 81-88
  11. Mashkour, M.J. (1971). Tarikh-e Tabriz ta Payan-e Gharn-e nohom-e Hejri [History of Tabriz Until the End of 9th Century AH]. Tehran: Publication of the National Honors
  12. Niknam Laleh, A. & Zoghi, F. (1995). Tabriz dar Gozar-e Zaman [Tabriz Over Time- A look at the History and Land of Azerbaijan]. Tabriz: Yaran Publication
  13. Omrani, B. & Esmaili Sangari, H. (2007). Historical Masques of East Azerbaijan. Tabriz: Sotoudeh Publication
  14. Pope, A.U. (1996). Persian Architecture, (Translated from English to Persian by Gh. Sadri Afshar). Tehran: Nashr-e-Akhtaran
  15. Rajaei Baghsari, S.M. & Halimi, M.H. (2009). The Relationship Between Drawing and Drawing in the Composition of the Inscription of the Altar of the Tomb of Pirbakran, Negareh, (11),5-17
  16. Sajjadi, A. (1995). Honar-e Gachbori dar Memari-ye Islami [The Art of Bedding in Islamic Architecture]. Athar Journal, (25), 194-214
  17. Sajjadi, A. (1996). Seyr-e Tahavvol-e Mehrab dar Memari-ye Islami-ye Iran az Aghaz ta Hamle-ye Moghol [The Evolution of the Altar in the Islamic Architecture of Iran from the Beginning to the Mongol Invasion]. Tehran: Publication of Cultural Heritage Organization
  18. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Aslani, H. (2011). Presentation of 12 Kinds of Stucco Works Used in the Architectural Decoration of the Islamic Period in Iran Based of Technical Properties. Journal of Archeological Studies, (1), 98-110
  19. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Aziz pour, Sh. (2012). Contemplating the Inscriptions and Motifs of Zavareh Jame Mosque. Journal of Faculty of Art and Architecture, Department of Archeology, (2), 97-120
  20. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Taghavi Nejad, B. (2016). The Study of Geometric Motifs of Plaster Altar of Ilkhani Period in Iran. Journal of Research in Islamic Architecture,4(10), 77-95
  21. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Taghavi Nejad, B. & Rashed Niya, Z. (2016). Motalee-ye Vizhegiha-ye Tazeeni-ye Asare Gachbori-ye Honarmandan-e Kermani dar Doreye Ilkhani ta Ebtedaye Doreye Teimouri [Study of decorative features of Kerman Artists Bedding Works in the Patriarchal Period up to the Bedding of the Timurid Period]. Negareh Journal, (37), 19-31
  22. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Taghavi Nejad, B. (2017). A Study of the Function of a Decorative Form in the Inscriptions of the Stuccoes Mihrabs Created During the 12th and 14th Centuries. Scientific Journal of Research in Islamic Architecture,5(15),55-74
  23. Salehi Kakhaki, A. & Taghavi Nejad, B. (2017). The Study of Genealogy and Individual Styles of Plaster Works of the 14th Century. Journal of Research in Islamic Architecture,5(14),84-104
  24. Salmani Qazvini, M. (2017). A Study of the Decorations of the altar of the Ilkhanid Age. New Research in the Humanities, (20), 243-259
  25. Seyyed Marandi, M.H. (2014). Negahi be Tarikh-e Marand [Take a Look at the History of Marand]. Tabriz: Ishigh Publication
  26. Shekofteh, A. (2012). Visual Features of Ilkhani Age Architectural Bedding Decorations Index. Journal of Iranian Architectural Studies, (2), 79-98
  27. Shekofteh, A. (2015). The Content of Quranic Inscriptions Used in Ilkhanid Alters. Journal of Research in Islamic Architecture,3(8), 104-122
  28. Tafazzoli, A. (1997). Qible of the Mosque, Altar. Islamic Studies, (35-36), 129-144.