امروزه با عنایت به توسعه شهرنشینی و نیاز به اسکان نیروی کار، احداث شهرک های مسکونی پایدار اجتناب ناپذیر است. یکی از ابعاد پایداری، پایداری اجتماعی میباشد واز آنجایی که تحقق پایداری اجتماعی بدون توجه به مولفه های سرمایه اجتماعی مقدور نمیباشد لذا شناخت نمونههای موجود و مقایسه تطبیقی آنها به منظور تبیین تحقق مولفههای سرمایه اجتماعی از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است. این مقاله بر آن است که مولفههای سرمایه اجتماعی در مناطق مسکونی بریم و بوارده آبادان را مورد ارزیابی تطبیقی قرار دهد. در صورت انجام این پژوهش ضمن مقایسه تطبیقی مولفههای سرمایه اجتماعی در این دو محله موفق، موانع دستیابی به پایداری اجتماعی از دریچه تحقق سرمایه اجتماعی مورد بررسی قرارمیگیرد تا از این رهگذر، توجه تصمیم گیران را به بازخورد احداث شهرکهای مسکونی جدید جلب نماید. روش تحقیق این پژوهش توصیفی تحلیلی و نحوه جمعآوری دادهها کتابخانهای و میدانی میباشد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان میدهد که در منطقه بریم فقط متغیر احساس تعلق اجتماعی و در منطقه بوارده متغیرهای احساس تعلق اجتماعی و اعتماد نهادی در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار دارند و در سایر متغیرها نظیر مشارکت وضعیت دو منطقه نامطلوب است. همچنین در سه متغیر « اعتماد بین شخصی»، « اعتماد نهادی» و « احساس تعلق اجتماعی» محله بوارده وضعیت بهتری نسبت به منطقه بریم دارد. این نتایج مشخص میکند که منطقهبندی محلات و تفکیک ساکنان براساس رتبه سازمانی میتواند تاثیرات سویی در افزایش تعاملات و مشارکت اجتماعی داشته باشد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative Evaluation of Social Capital Elements in Urban Public Housing (Case Study: Braim and Bawarda Residential Areas in Abadan(
The advent of the Industrial Revolution, the rising standard of living, the invention of automobile, and advanced transportation technology, have led the cities to overgrow in the post-world war era, causing environmental problems, pollution, traffic, poverty, etc. Hence, to fairly distribute urban services and provide others with housing units, the construction of public complexes and residential settlements for the labor force was taken into account, especially for those migrating from other places to industrial cities seeking for a job. Regarding the time and budget constraints, these programs provide a large number of low-cost housing units as shelters for millions of households, often leading to low-quality, unstable, and even unhealthy buildings. In some cities such as Abadan, constructing residential centers and new communities that meet the needs of immigrant workers was quite essential due to the establishment of the refinery which functioned as an industrial hub attracting the population to the heart of the city and changing people's lifestyle. These residential areas were designed to accommodate the workforce according to their nationalities, ethnic characteristics and occupational social class. They were devised to provide an ideal place for people to spend their leisure time and simultaneously enjoy educational, medical, sports, and other facilities.
Social sustainability is an aspect of sustainability, which is unachievable if the elements of social capital are ignored. Therefore, it is essential to recognize and compare the existing examples to determine whether the elements of social capital have been realized. This article seeks to make a comparative evaluation of the elements of social capital in Braim and Bawarda residential areas in Ababan. In addition, a comparative study will be performed on the elements of social capital in these two thriving neighborhoods to further scrutinize the barriers of achieving social sustainability through the realization of social capital. This research is aimed at making the decision-makers aware of the feedback resulted from constructing new residential settlements. Carrying out a comparative study on the realization of the elements of social capital in the two residential neighborhoods of Braim and Bawarda in Abadan, this paper tries to answer the following question: "What are the similarities and differences of Braim and Bawarda neighborhoods in Abadan in terms of realized social capital elements?" This research is a descriptive study and in terms of field studies, it uses a "survey method" based on observations and questionnaires as data collection tools. The data in this research is analyzed in the form of an applied study. The desired physical structure in a public residential settlement seems to be impotent for realizing social sustainability goals regardless of the social stratification and the creation of participatory networks. Social capital is considered as a social capacity that improves and promotes interpersonal interactions in a society and its institutions. In addition to material resources, each social network depends on factors such as trust, participation, and social cohesion, which might hinder social development and sustainability if the elements of social capital are not realized. The findings of this study indicate that only the variable of "sense of social belonging" in Braim neighborhood is considered desirable, while other variables of social capital are not considered desirable. Moreover, the variables of "sense of social belonging" and "institutional trust" are regarded as desirable in Bawarda neighborhood, while other variables of social capital are regarded as undesirable.
Adopting the neighborhood unit approach and dividing each neighborhood into manageable and law-abiding cores will allow for more effective use of urban services. Since both regions have similar physical structures, the "sense of social belonging" is desirable in both neighborhoods. The research findings also acknowledge that Bawarda neighborhood is better off than Braim area in terms of three variables, "interpersonal trust," "institutional trust," and "sense of social belonging," with no significant difference between variables in the two neighborhoods. Since Bawarda residents are lower-ranking employees with different lifestyles, beliefs, and family experiences than Braim residents, the elements of interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and sense of social belonging are more desirable than that of Braim. Multiple researches have been conducted on social capital so far. Research on the assessment of social capital in cities and neighborhoods often confirms the existence of physical defects in the design of residential settlements and the shortage of public services, green space, and lack of public gathering centers. No comparative evaluation has been carried out on the elements of social capital in two neighborhoods with successful physical characteristics. Moreover, wrong housing allocation policies have failed to be identified as one of the factors influencing active presence of residents and reduced civic participation. This research can be expanded to examine the extent to which the separation of social stratification in residential settlements is effective in realizing the elements of social capital.