معماری و رسانه، به عنوان ابزارهای اجتماعی در بستر فرهنگی و تاریخی، نقش مهمی را در زندگی روزمره ی انسان ها ایفا می کنند. با توجه به تعدد روزافزون رسانه ها و وجود ارتباط با مخاطبین در هر دوی این پدیده ها، هدف پژوهش حاضر آن است که دریابد آیا می توان معماری را نیز به مثابه یک رسانه دانست یا خیر. به همین منظور ابتدا تعاریف رسانه و معماری از دیدگاه واژه شناسی و ادبیات، و سپس نظریه پردازان و معماران بررسی شده است و با تطبیق نظریات آن ها، اصول نشانه شناسی و عناصر تشکیل دهنده ی رسانه، مدلی مبنی بر فرایند ارتباطی در شناخت یک اثر معماری توسط مخاطب به دست آمده است. مدل حاصل، تعریف رسانه به عنوان وسیله ی ارتباط جمعی را در دل خود جای می دهد و نشان می دهد که هردوی آن ها در طول تاریخ بر هویت، شناخت واقعیات، الگوی مصرف و درک انسان ها از حقایق و ارزش ها مؤثر بوده اند. این مقاله، پژوهشی کیفی است که با رویکرد سیستمی و کل نگر، به تحلیل، ترکیب و تطبیق دو سیستم معماری و رسانه می پردازد و از رویکرد نشانه شناسی نیز برای تحلیل رابطه ی میان کالبد، محتوا و معنای معماری با ادراک و شناخت انسان استفاده شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز با استفاده از منابع اسنادی به دست آمده اند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که می توان معماری را نیز به مثابه یک رسانه، شامل عناصر فرستنده ی پیام و مخاطب، پیام، رمز نگاری و رمزگشایی، کانال ارتباطی، عامل رسانه ای، زمینه و عوامل اختلال گر دانست که در رسیدن پیام معماری با استفاده از ویژگی های کالبدی، معنایی و محتوایی به وسیله ی حواس پنجگانه و قدرت ذهن و ادراک به انسان یاری می رسانند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Comparative study of definitions, functions and elements of “media” with the purpose of examining the role of “architecture” as a “media”
Introduction: As social means in the cultural and historical context, architecture and media are heavily involved in the daily lives of human beings. Humans can gain a graceful understanding of their relationship with the architecture of their immediate surroundings, as by observing it, they can receive clues and signs and hence seek to organize it with their information and memories and formulate the whole environment. Thus, they are able to communicate with the environment in which they live in, and their surrounding environment is also able to exchange information with them as an intermediary.
Problem statement: Even though architecture appears to be an applied field of study, it also acts similar to an instrument for mass communication. This issue and the intermediating role of architecture raises the fundamental question as to whether architecture can be deemed a medium given its varying attitudes and functions or not. The significance of studying this issue is in that both architecture and media are among the factors that encompass various aspects of human life, and if architecture can be considered a type of medium, its contribution to man’s life, as well as the approaches to dealing with them in cultural, moral and other aspects, must be considered.
Research Methodology: The present study is a qualitative research in which the two realms of architecture and media are analyzed, combined and adapted using a systematic and holistic approach. Semiotic approaches were employed in this study to analyze the relationship between body, content and meaning of architecture and human perception and cognition. Moreover, in order to study the epistemology and ontology of the two systems, i.e. architecture and media, both were comparatively matched with one another and using comparative analysis, the model of similarity between architecture and media and their mutual points are obtained. Documentary resources were utilized for collecting data.
Findings: The very first step in this paper was to investigate the definitions of architecture and medium from the perspective of lexicography, as well as from the views of theorists and architects. The results from this section, and also examining their role and function suggests that the features and definitions of the media can be examined from two perspectives, namely (1) the media in its original function is like a text, in that it is an instrument for establishing communication with the audience and a system of symbols that can be studied under semiotics. Also, (2) as for the second function of media and an instrument for mass communication among human beings, it includes features that, if considered for architecture as well, architecture can be deemed a media with similar characteristics and functions. Therefore, in the second step, architecture was thought of as a text which can be read and understood better through semiotics and emphasizing on the signification process. Hence, by summarizing the views of theorists and semioticians, architectural works are comprehended in three stages of sensory, intellectual and semantic aspects, within which the sensory layer depends on recognizing body and form, its description, and examining its functional and syntactic aspects, which in turn results in the recognition of artistic themes through sensory aesthetics. Rational factors form the connections between artistic themes, and ideas and notions in a logical and conventional way through the method of structuralist semiotics. Through their symbolic, schematic, iconic, or compositional implications, semantic factors lead to the understanding and interpretation of the notion of architecture based on the basic tendencies of the human mind, including psychology or individual, social or universal worldview, as well as intellectual, cultural, religious, ideological, and philosophical foundations. In the next step, in order to examine the role of architecture and media as an instrument of mass communication, the three waves of Toffler were adapted to three periods of pre-modern, modern, and postmodern in architectural courses. Since, according to the results of this section, architecture and media have had common features in each historical wave, it is safe to say that architecture can influence various aspects of human life such as identity, values, culture and recognition of reality through its unique features. In the last step, the components of media and architecture were comparatively adapted. According to the findings of this section, a communication process can be thought as to be consisting of three main factors: sender of message, receiver of message and the message, while other components are introduced as media elements, communication channels, encryption and decryption, disruptor (i.e. noise), feedback, texture and context. Accordingly, the physical, formal, content and semantic features of an architectural work, themselves constituting the architectural structure, act as a medium that conveys the architectural message to the audience through communication channels including the five senses and human perception. In this definition, the factors interfering with the delivery of the architectural message may be either physical (such as disturbing noise, insufficient or blinding light) or inferential (such as the complexity or anonymity of the message content and meaning) that includes both physical and semantic aspects of the architecture. Moreover, important factors for comprehending the symbol and deciphering the architectural message, and the context of its formation, include spatial and textural position, social, cultural, religious and philosophical context and time-dependent conditions. Audience and user feedback towards the decoded message of architecture is also a behavioral cue and an emotional response that stems from the perception and spatial experience of architectural space within the audience. Finally, an adaptive model of the constituents of a media communication and the relationship between the audience and the architectural work is proposed.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that architecture can also be considered as a medium, including the elements of sender the message and the audience, the message, encryption and decryption, communication channel, media factor, context and disruptive factors that assist human in conveying the architectural message using physical, semantic and content features through the five senses and the power of the mind and perception.