شوشتر با دارا بودن تعداد زیادی از بناهای آرامگاهی به گنجینهای از معماری اسلامی بدل گشته است؛ در این میان، بنای امامزاده عبدالله به دلیل دوره زمانی ساخت(دوره انتقال از دوره سلجوقی-خوارزمشاهی به دوره ایلخانی)، ساختار شکلی، نوع گنبد، سابقه تاریخی گنبد به عنوان نمونه پیشگام در معماری ایران، ویژگیهای معماری، تزیینی و تنوع کتیبهها، جایگاه ویژهای دارد. با در نظر گرفتن موارد یاد شده که حکایت از اهمیت بنا دارد و با این فرض که معمولاً بناهای مذهبی به علت دفعات مرمت، بازسازی و گسترش ساختمانی از کالبد اولیه خود خارج میشوند؛ پژوهش پیش روی بر آن است تا چگونگی شکلگیری و نحوه گسترش آرامگاه را مورد مطالعه و بازنگری قرار داده و زوایای جدیدی از نحوه شکلگیری، پلان اولیه، توسعه ساختمانی و تاریخ معماری بنا را مشخص کند. نتایج پژوهش که به روشی توصیفی-تطبیقی-تحلیلی با تکیه بر اطلاعات بدست آمده از دو مرحله مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانهای انجام شده، نشان میدهد که ساختار اولیۀ مقبره، گنبدخانهای منفرد مربوط به دوران قبل از دوره مغول بوده است. در دوره ایلخانی آرامگاه بر حسب نیاز گسترش یافت و متأثر از شیوهی رایج گنبدسازی این دوره، گنبدخانهای به بنای اولیه الحاق میشود. در دورۀ صفویه با وارد شدن فضاها و عناصر معماری جدیدی چون آرامگاه بیبی گزیده خاتون و فضاهای وابسته به آن و بازسازی سردر اصلی مجموعه، کالبد بنا دچار تغییر اساسی میشود. دو مناره در زمان افشاریه به بنا الحاق گردید و در دورۀ قاجاریه با وجود عدم دخالت در کالبد اصلی، برخی کتیبهها و تزیینات به ویژه نقوش گنبدخانه اصلی ایجاد میشود.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Physical Transformations in the Tomb of Imamzadeh Abdullah in Shushtar: A Manifestation of Iranian Architecture in the Transition from The Seljuk-Khwarezmshahi period to the Ilkhanate Period
Due to its large number of mausoleums and tombs, Shushtar has become a treasury of Islamic architecture, among which, the building of Imamzadeh Abdullah is a significant point of interest due to the period of construction (transition from Seljuk- Khwarezmshahi period to Ilkhanate period), structure form, type of dome, historical precedent of dome as a pioneer in Iranian architecture, architectural features, decoration and diversity of inscriptions. Considering the aforementioned cases, which indicate the importance of the building, and given the fact that religious buildings are usually ousted gradually from their original form due to the abundance of renovation, reconstruction and expansion of the building, the current research is performed to study and review the formation and expansion of the tomb, and to identify new perspectives on the way it was formed, the original plan, the building expansion, and the architectural history of the building.
This research, which is performed using a descriptive-comparative-analytical method which is fundamental in terms of purpose, while it is among the qualitative researches in terms of the type of data, and in terms of the data available, it is placed among the historical research. Data collection tools include the direct observation of physical and spatial components, the situation on position of the building and the examination of documents that provide information on the subject of research. Qualitative data analysis methods were also used for data analysis. The tomb, which was far from residential areas not long ago, is now located within the urban fabric of Shushtar with the expansion of urban spaces. Due to the natural shape of the terrain, it is placed at a higher level than the surrounding area. The complex has an area of 700 m2 and is consisted of the entrance facade, the side dome, the corridor between the two domes, the main dome, the tomb of Bibi Gozideh Khatoon and the surrounding spaces such as the women’s prayer hall, portico, porch and two minarets.
In contrast to previous studies, which were brief, inconclusive and at times erroneous in descriptions and lack of attention to the evolution and physical expansion of the building was one of their prominent feature, the present study seeks to address new issues such as the structure of the original building, expansion of the building from a sole building to a tomb complex within different periods, the origins, emergence and continuity of building, structural and decorative of patterns the complex during the transition from Seljuk-Khwarezmshahi period to the Ilkhanate period and lastly the influential role of the building in Iranian architecture in general and tomb architecture in particular. The original body of Imamzadeh Abdullah, which was formed before the rule of the Ilkhanate and during the rule of the Abbasid caliphs over Shushtar, consisted of a single dome with a vault.
The construction model, plan, architectural style, especially the chipped design of this dome, and its overall spatial structure, rather inherits the architectural style of the tombs from Iraq and Mesopotamia than resembling to those of Seljuk-Khwarezmshahi architecture. Regardless of this, and despite the existence of some features of the building that have an unknown origin, many of the building details and decorative features of the main dome are simply influenced by the common patterns of Seljuk, Kharazmshahi buildings and to some extent the indigenous features of the region. This dome, as a rare example of the combined style of pre-Mongol Iranian architecture (Seljuk-Khwarezmshahi period) and Iraqi architecture has, on one hand, influenced the style of construction, dome building and spatial structure of tombs in the south and southwest of Iran, especially examples consisted of single domes and on the other hand, and has been the missing link from some decorative features within the architecture of the Seljuk-Khwarezmshahi period, in fields such as plastering and tiling, to the Ilkhanate period.
According to written sources and field studies in monuments of the Ilkhanate period (8th century AH), the building has turned into a combined tomb-monastery complex, through some constructions and renovations, within which the side dome is among rare surviving monuments. Most of the renovations and expansions have occurred during the Safavid period. At this period, a plethora of physical changes were made in the original spaces such as the main dome and its vault on the one hand, and on the other hand, the tomb was transformed into a large burial complex by the allocation of endowments and building spaces such as the entrance façade to the side dome, surrounding landscapes of the building, guest house, school, residential rooms and huge entrance structure. In the Afshari period, two minarets were added to the building, and in the Qajar period, some decorations were embedded, and finally, with the changes made in the contemporary period, the complex has achieved its present form.