زبان پستمدرن مستلزم بهکارگیری فنون بلاغی گوناگون است. توجه به نقش فن مجاز و بهویژه رابطهی تعاملی آن با استعاره در زبان معماری پستمدرن برای تولید و بیان معنا، در پژوهشهای پیشین مدنظر قرار نگرفته است. هدف این پژوهش بررسی نحوهی شکلگیری و کارکرد فنون بلاغی در تولید و انتقال معنا و نیز رمزگشایی و بازتولید آن در معماری پستمدرن است. بهاین منظور، برای نخستینبار، شرایط تحقق فنون بلاغی مجاز و استعاره در معماری پستمدرن تعریف شد و رابطهی تعاملی آنها در دو محور همنشینی و جانشینی برای ایجاد دو فن دیگر ایهام و کنایه، مورد تجزیهوتحلیل قرار گرفت. بنابراین پژوهش حاضر کیفی و با ماهیتی کاربردی است. دادهها از طریق مطالعهی اسنادی گردآوری و بهروش توصیفی-تحلیلی، با تحلیل نشانهشناسانه و شیوهی تطبیقی-مقایسهای و مطالعهی موردی تحلیل شد. بر اساس یافتههای پژوهش معماری پستمدرن بهیاری رابطهی تعاملی مجاز و استعاره در دو محور همنشینی و جانشینی با شکلدهی دیگر فنون بلاغی؛ مفاهیمی چون پیچیدگی، تضاد، لذت، کثرتگرایی و تعویق معنا را متجلی میکند و موجب تکثیر و توسعهی آنها میشود. همچنین با تلفیق معانی صریح و ضمنی نشانههای متون گذشته و «از آن خود سازی» آنها، ضمن شکلدهی به واقعیات، برخلاف ادعای پستمدرنیستی خود، به ساخت ایدئولوژی مبادرت میورزد. بنابراین از طریق درک عملکرد فنون بلاغی و بهویژه رابطهی تعاملی مجاز و استعاره، امکان رمزگشایی و بازتولید معنای هر معماریِ پیچیدهی بلاغی بهکمک تحلیل نشانهشناسانه میسر میشود. همچنین بهرهگیری از این فنون، بهمثابه ابراز بیان اندیشه در طراحی معماری، غنای معناییِ معماری حاصل را ممکن میکند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
An Analysis of the Expression of Meaning in Postmodern Architecture from a Linguistic Perspective(Comparison of the Application of Rhetorical Devices in Postmodern Language and Architecture)
Introduction: Language or linguistic system is one of the most fundamental principles in twentieth-century philosophical studies and postmodern philosophy. 20th-century scholars considered "language" as the basis of thought - not its tool. According to them, truth, i.e. objective reality and whatever it is, is formed in language. Thus, the revival of thought in the form of language has changed the issues of cultural criticism of postmodernism, and the linguistic theory has simultaneously paid attention to meaning and symbolism in architecture. How meaning is transferred in language, as well as how linguistics is applied through its linguistic similarity to architecture, have studied through paradigms such as semiotics. The founders of semiotics, Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), considered language as a system of signs with structural (syntactic) and semantic aspects. Rhetorical devices are one of the tools used for the formation and recognition of meaning. Most contemporary semiologists consider the study of these techniques, or at least some of their features, in the realm of semiotics.
Statement of the problem: The verbal language of postmodernism uses rhetorical devices as a means of forming meaning. Previous studies have not addressed the role of metonymy and especially its interaction with metaphor in the formation and expression of meaning in the language of postmodern architecture. Therefore, the research question is: "How do rhetorical devices influence the expression of meaning in language and architecture?" So, the present study aims "to study how rhetorical devices are formed and how they operate in forming and transferring meaning, as well as decoding and reproducing it in postmodern architecture." What makes this study significant is that in societies such as Iran, which are influenced by Western thoughts, knowing the opportunities and threats of applying these thoughts enhances architects’ and designers’ creativity and minimizes cultural damages caused by accepting such thought currents.
Methods: To answer the research question and reach the research goal, the semiotics of Saussure and Peirce as well as Barthes's mythology were studied in linguistics and the data obtained from them were compared with architecture. Then, the rhetorical devices of metonymy, metaphor, amphibology, and irony were defined in verbal language and semiotics, and their formation and functions were compared with postmodern architecture in two paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. The analyses were performed using Charles Jencks' (1939-2019) definition of postmodern architecture as well as his interpretation of the New State Gallery (Neue Staatsgalerie (1977-1983) in German) in Stuttgart, Germany. Then, the results were examined in several other buildings. So, the present study was qualitative-applied research. Data were collected by library study. Then, they were analyzed descriptively and comparatively using a semiotic approach and through case studies.
Findings and Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that architecture is a language in which there is no intrinsic and natural relationship between its signifier (body) and signified (meaning) according to Saussure's linguistics, and what is perceived as the architectural meaning is the outcome of contracts between the architect and audiences. While, according to Pierce's semiotics and the referral system of its signs, architecture is a language in which rhetorical devices (especially metaphor and its interaction with metonymy) play a key role in its "genesis" and "function". The referral system in the architectural language, especially postmodern architecture, and the semantic reproduction, multiplicity, difference and suspense obtained from this system, as well as changes made in the physical structure of architecture- with the formation of the metaphor in the paradigmatic axis- and its semantic role - with the formation of the metonymy in the syntagmatic axis- represent the metaphorical and rhetorical pattern of this language. On the other hand, the combination of the two Saussurean and Peircean models indicates that in postmodern architecture, there is a movement towards a single meaning. However, the totality of this meaning is suspended in the metaphorical and rhetorical system of its language. Postmodern architecture reproduces and develops concepts such as pluralism, contradiction, pleasure, complexity, etc. through its postmodern signs and using rhetorical devices. On the contrary, comparing its features with the concept of “myth” defined by Barthes showed that postmodern architecture uses the architectural elements of the prior contexts and impoverishes their meanings without suppression of these meanings by making fundamental changes in their layers and codes. Then, using rhetorical devices, combining the explicit and implicit meanings of the elements and "making them its own", it imposes itself on the cultures as the ideology while shaping the facts. It can be said that like architecture, which can develop, reproduce, and enrich linguistic signified- concepts and meanings-, language is also able to encode or "give meaning" to architectural signs. Thus, by understanding the functions of rhetorical devices, and in particular, the metonymy-metaphor interaction, it is possible to decode and reproduce the meaning of any complex rhetorical architecture through semiotic analysis. Moreover, using these devices, as means of expressing thoughts in the architectural design, makes it possible to enrich the resulting architecture semantically.