نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد طراحی شهری، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده مهندسی معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

ساخت و سازهای نوین در فرایندهای برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی شهری در چند دهه اخیر با شرایط مطلوب اکولوژی شهری تطابق ندارند و این امر شرایط نامناسب محیط زیستی را در مقیاس خرد برای محلات شهری و در مقیاس کلان برای شهر و حوزه‌‌های فراشهری ایجاد کرده است. عدم توجه به اصول توسعه پایدار و شهر بوم گرا، محیط زیست ناکارآمد و شرایط اکولوژی نامناسبی را برای اکثر محلات در شهرهای مختلف کشور موجب شده است. این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف از نوع کاربردی می‌باشد و رویکرد روش‌شناسی آن بر مبنای روش آمیخته است. پژوهش پیش رو در پی پاسخ به سؤالِ میزان تحقق‌یافتگی شاخص‌های شهر بوم‌گرا در محله ازگل شهر تهران و فاصله آن تا حد ایده‌آل و آرمانی می‌باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش ارائه چارچوب مفهومی مناسب برای ارتقاء وضعیت بوم گرایی محلات شهری است. براساس ادبیات علمی، 53 شاخص متنوع و مرتبط با موضوع مطالعاتی استخراج شده است. از آزمون تی برای سنجش میزان مطلوبیت و از رگرسیون چند متغیره برای بررسی شاخص‌های اثر استفاده شده است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که اثرگذاری 9 مورد از شاخص‌های بوم گرایی بر رضایتمندی ساکنان معنی‌دار می‌باشد و 62 شاخص دیگر از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردار نیستند. شاخص‌های اثرگذار زمینه تحقق‌پذیری 15 درصد از شرایط بوم گرایی را فراهم ساخته و این نشان می‌دهد که 94 درصد تا رسیدن به حالت ایده‌آل و آرمانی فاصله وجود دارد و این امر تحقق یافتگی نسبتاً پایین بوم‌گرایی را نشان می‌دهد. همجواری محله ازگل با پارک جنگلی لویزان، امکانات محیطی موجود و استقرار آن در گستره شمالی شهر تهران زمینه تحقق پذیری اکثر شاخص‌های شهر بوم‌گرا را فراهم نموده است ولی ضعفِ کارکرد پردازه‌های برنامه‌ریزی و طراحی شهری بوم گرایانه، تحقق یافتگی میزان بوم گرایی آن را به صورت پاسخده نشان نمی‌دهد. این ضعف با توجه به اینکه اکثر محلات شهر تهران حتی از چنین موقعیت و بسترهایی هم برخوردار نیستند، وضعیت تهدید آفرین و نامطلوب اکثر محلات شهر تهران را به نظام مدیریت شهری گوش‌زد می‌کند. برای نزدیک شدن به وضعیت ایده‌آل باید از طرفی کمیت و کیفیت شاخص‌هایی که اثرگذاری آنها معنی‌دار است، ارتقاء پیدا کند و از طرف دیگر الزاماً باید زمینه‌های تحقق پذیری شاخص‌های دیگر نیز فراهم شود.

چکیده تصویری

بررسی میزان تحقق یافتگی شاخص‌های شهر بوم گرا و ارائه چارچوب مفهومی توسعه آن مبتنی بر میزان رضایتمندی ساکنین (مطالعه موردی: محله ازگل تهران)

تازه های تحقیق

- ارزیابی میزان تحقق‌یافتگی بوم‌گرایی در محله ازگل شهر تهران و چگونگی دستیابی به حالت ایده‌آل
- ارائه شاخص‌های شهر بوم‌گرا و چارچوب مفهومی توسعه بوم‌گرایی مبتنی بر رضایتمندی ساکنین
- تبیین وضعیت تهدیدآفرین و نامطلوب اکثر محلات شهر تهران به لحاظ بوم‌گرایی، بر اساس استدلال برآمده از انتخاب هدفمند نمونه مطالعاتی و پردازش داده‌ها

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Realization Rate of the Eco-City Indicators and the Conceptual Framework for its Development Based on Residents’ Satisfaction (Case study: Ozgol neighborhood of Tehran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Saidi 1
  • Mozhgan Ansari 2
  • Faezeh Torabinejad 2

1 Ph.D. in Urban Development (Urban Planning and Design), School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Master of Urban Design, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Objective and Background: In the recent decade, the new constructions in the urban design and planning processes are not compatible with the desirable urban ecology conditions, resulting in creating adverse environmental conditions on a micro-scale for urban neighborhoods and on a macro-scale for the city and suburban areas. Disregarding the principles of sustainable development and eco-city has caused an inefficient environment and adverse ecological conditions for the majority of the neighborhoods in different cities of Iran. Ozgol neighborhood of Tehran was selected as the case study for the field survey and investigating the research indicators. This neighborhood is located in District 1 of Tehran Municipality and enjoys more desirable climate conditions than most of the other neighborhoods of Tehran. The indicators of the eco-city aspects in proportion to the residents’ satisfaction were not considered in the conducted studies so far in an integrated and cohesive way. Also, evaluating the current situation to recognize the responsiveness of the indicators has not been conducted in a case study in proportion to the ideal expected situation and based on the scientific literature of the subject. Accordingly, the current study aims to evaluate the satisfaction of the residents of the Ozgol neighborhood with the current situation while explaining the influential indicators on the eco-city, considering functional, physical, economic, social, and environmental aspects. This research also presents the practical and constructive solutions to promote the ecological situation of the neighborhood understudy and delivers a proper framework in this regard to be used in the urban neighborhoods.
Methods: The current research is an applied type of research in terms of purpose. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the data collection process and analysis. Therefore, it can be said that the methodological approach of the current study was based on the mixed approach. According to the theoretical foundations, the indicators of eco-city were extracted. Also, the data was collected using a questionnaire, and they were analyzed in SPSS software using one-sample t-test and Multivariate Regression. 375 questionnaires were used considering the number of the neighborhood population in the field studies and data collection. The validity of the questionnaire was studied and controlled through content analysis of the questions and adapting them with the scientific foundations. Its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha test (a value higher than 0.7). The sampling was done randomly among the neighborhood residents, and the Ozgol neighborhood was selected as the case study using the purposive sampling method due to its relatively desirable environmental conditions. Compared to the majority of other neighborhoods, the stated neighborhood in the north of Tehran and adjacent to the Lavizan Forest Park indicates its favorable environmental conditions in comparison with other neighborhoods of Tehran.
Findings: The indicators of eco-city can be explained in functional, physical, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The desirability of these aspects was studied based on the various indicators. In addition to evaluating the desirability, the impact factor of each one of them on the overall residents’ satisfaction with the conditions of the eco-city was calculated. The findings indicate that the effectiveness of nine indicators of the ecological criteria on the residents’ satisfaction is significant, and 29 indicators do not enjoy a favorable situation. The following indicators have the maximum effect on the satisfaction, respectively: the existence of green space, park, and tree in the open and public spaces (rather than asphalt) with the coefficient of 0.315, the degree of social interactions in the green public spaces with natural elements with the coefficient of 0.250, using water in landscaping with the coefficient of 0.246, existence of native plant species with the coefficient f 0.200, the value of the vastness of the neighborhood size and being particular with the coefficient of 0.198, the number and quality of the green spaces with the coefficient of 0.120, the location of the communication network and the building masses in accordance with air circulations with the coefficient of 0.106, the mixed land use with the coefficient of 0.090, and the capability to provide the majority of the needs in walking and bicycle distance with the coefficient of 0.073. The influential indicators of the realizability provided 51% of the ecological conditions, indicating that 49% remained to achieve an ideal condition, which indicates a relatively low realization of ecology orientation.
Conclusion: Considering that the Ozgol neighborhood is located in the northeastern area of Tehran and enjoys more desirable environmental conditions than most of the other neighborhoods of Tehran, the realization percentage of the ecological indicators in this neighborhood was expected to be more than 51%. Some neighborhoods might suffer from the lack of or fundamental weakness of the ecological indicators. Also, there might be few neighborhoods in Tehran that are less far from the ideal state than the Ozgol neighborhood. The adjacency of the Ozgol neighborhood to Lavizan Forest Park, the existing environmental facilities, and its establishment in the northern area of Tehran have realized the majority of eco-city indicators. However, the poor function of the ecological urban design and planning processes does not show the realizability of its ecology-orientation as responsive. This weakness warns the urban management about the threatening and adverse situation of the majority of the neighborhoods of Tehran, considering that most of the neighborhoods of Tehran do not have such context. In order to approach an ideal situation, on the one hand, the quality and quantity of the indicators and their effectiveness must be promoted. On the other hand, the contexts for the realization of other indicators must also be provided. Disregarding the indicators of the eco-city in the long-term might limit the continuity of urbanization and might lead to the destruction of the urbanized civilization. Therefore, survey, evaluation, and providing the context for realizing the eco-city indicators must be on the agenda of the urban management continuously.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Eco-city
  • Satisfaction
  • Ecological indicators
  • Realization Rate
  • Ozgol Neighborhood
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