نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد معماری پایدار، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

3 استاد، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه توجه به ارتقای سلامتی انسان‌ها نیازمند یک جنبش بین رشته‌ای است. از اینرو رویکرد سالوتوژنیک به مانند روشی موثر در ارتقای تندرستی بشر نقش بازی می‌کند. یکی از زیر شاخه‌های اساسی در این رویکرد حس انسجام (SoC) می‌باشد که آنتونووسکی آن را یک پاسخ به موقعیت‌های نامطلوب زندگی بیان می‌کند که از این‌رو مبنای کلی این پژوهش را تشکیل می‌دهد. هدف اصلی این پژوهش دستیابی به راه حلی در طراحی به منظور افزایش حس انسجام افراد ساکن در بافت تاریخی شیراز می‌باشد. بدین جهت، محله سنگ سیاه در شهرستان شیراز به عنوان نمونه مورد بررسی، در نظر گرفته شده است. این پژوهش از روش ترکیبی  بهره‌مند می‌باشد .از این‌رو ابتدا به بررسی محتواهای پیشرو با توجه به مطالعات اسنادی و کتابخانه‌ای پرداخته شده است. سپس به منظور گردآوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامه حس انسجام آنتونووسکی و همچنین پرسشنامه کیفیت زندگی سازمان جهانی بهداشت استفاده شده است. در بخش پیمایش، تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها، به وسیله‌ی نرم افزار SPSS 24 و به روش آمار توصیفی و استنباطی انجام شده است. همچنین با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SMART PLS 2، رابطه بین متغیرهای پنهان و متغیرهای اصلی پژوهش توسط مدل ساختاری، بررسی شده است. با انجام این پژوهش عوامل اصلی و موثر بر کیفیت زندگی(QoL) افراد و حس انسجام(SoC) در ساکنان محله سنگ سیاه، به طور قابل توجهی شناسایی و بررسی گردیده است. با توجه به نتایج، «مؤلفه معناداری» بیشترین ضریب همبستگی را در رابطه با محیط انسان ساخت و کیفیت زندگی افراد، دارا می‌باشد، از این‌رو با توجه به این تحقیق، این فاکتور به‌عنوان راه‌حلی در محله سنگ سیاه و محله‌های مشابه برای پیشبرد طراحی با رویکرد سالوتوژنیک در نظر گرفته ‌می‌شود.  

چکیده تصویری

بررسی چگونگی افزایش حس انسجام در افراد با توجه به رویکرد سالوتوژنیک (نمونه موردی: بافت مسکونی محله تاریخی سنگ سیاه شیراز)

تازه های تحقیق

- با تاکید بر رویکرد سالوتوژنیک، در این پژوهش رابطه بین حس انسجام و محیط ساخته شده، تایید شده است که گویای اهمیت محیط ساخته شده و تاثیر آن بر سلامت انسان‌ها می‌باشد.
- با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، در محله سنگ سیاه و محلات مشابه، فاکتور معناداری به عنوان مهم‌ترین فاکتور در طراحی متناسب با رویکرد سالوتوژنیک در نظر گرفته می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on Attaining Healthy Housing by Increasing Sense of Coherence in Historical Context with Emphasize on Salutogenic Approach: Sang-e-Siyah Community, Shiraz, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohadeseh Alsadat Hamidi 1
  • Mehdi Khakzand 2
  • Mohsen Faizi 3

1 M.A. in Sustainable Architecture, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, School of Architecture & Environmental Design, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Objective and Background: Nowadays, health promotion in humans is not limited to medicine and psychology; therefore, a strong need for an effective interdisciplinary movement is felt to increase individuals' health as much as possible.  Several studies have concluded that the quality of the built environment is an important indicator of health and quality of life in modern societies. Health paradigm fans believe fundamental changes in individual and social behaviors are required to improve health, meaning that there must be a movement in the "social body" for the "biological and physical body" if an effective response is to be achieved. Housing and neighborhoods play an important role in human life as the most basic man-made environments. These environments have a significant impact on human mental and physical health. The architects and urban planners of today must develop designs aimed at improving human health.  Previous studies have shown that the salutogenic approach can promote human health. One of the basic sub-branches of this approach that forms the general basis of this research is the sense of coherence (SOC), which Antonovsky defines as the dynamic orientation for the world. This study aims to achieve a design solution that will increase the sense of coherence of people living in the historical fabric of Shiraz. As a result, the Sang-e Siah neighborhood in Shiraz city has been used as a case study. Accordingly, this study aims to investigate the sense of coherence in the Sang-e Siah neighborhood in Shiraz, which can be improved by increasing this component in humans. Hence, the research question is "What effects does the built neighborhood in Sang-e Siah have on citizens' sense of coherence?" Additionally, "what can be done to enhance people's sense of coherence through efficient design?" Answering this question in various neighborhoods can lead to effective strategies in maintaining and promoting the health of the residents in the Sang-e Siah neighborhood of Shiraz as well as the development of the neighborhood based on the salutogenic approach.
Methods: This study is based on mixed methods. Therefore, the bibliographic and documentary collections are first used to determine the progressive contents. Next, the World Health Organization Quality of Life and Antonovsky's sense of coherence surveys were used to collect data. The survey data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS-24 software and a structural model based on SMART-PLS-2 software to test the research hypothesis. This research significantly identified and examined the main factors affecting the individuals' quality of life (QoL) and the residents' sense of coherence (SoC) in the Sang-e Siah neighborhood.
Findings: As a result of the factors obtained from both the tables related to the Sang-e Siah neighborhood and the quality of life survey, we find a more comprehensive correlation between the built environment and the sense of coherence. The variables in the sense of coherence survey and in the WHO Quality of Life survey have been expressed as keywords. The sense of coherence also acts as a dependent variable compared to the quality of life (an independent variable). Hence, the hidden variables related to the quality of life with the highest correlation coefficient should be taken into account since changes in each sector will impact the sense of coherence, meaning the SoC will improve as the quality of life improves.
Conclusion: According to the main purposes of the study, the salutogenic approach is intended to promote a sense of coherence and achieve a healthy home. In the neighborhood of Sang-e Siah, a significant factor with a correlation coefficient of (0.978) shows the highest correlation with the variable of the sense of coherence. Also, according to Alan Dilani's translation of the components of sense of coherence, every significant factor consists of sub-categories such as social support, music, art, culture, increased activity, increased individual and social independence, the presence of pets, view, comfort and convenience, and positive distraction. As a result, such keywords can be used in designing the historical fabric of Shiraz. Therefore, designing according to these strategies can significantly improve people's physical and mental health in these environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salutogenic
  • Sense of Coherence (SOC)
  • Sang-e Siyah Neighborhood
  • Shiraz
  1. Abdelaal, M. S., & Soebarto, V. (2019). Biophilia and Salutogenesis as restorative design approaches in healthcare architecture. Architectural science review62(3), 195-205.
  2. Abdullahi, A. A. (2015). Survey and evaluation of land use in 9 areas of Shiraz using LQ model in GIS environment.
  3. Andrade, C. C., Lima, M. L., Devlin, A. S., & Hernández, B. (2016). Is it the place or the people? Disentangling the effects of hospitals’ physical and social environments on well-being. Environment and Behavior48(2), 299-323.
  4. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. New perspectives on mental and physical well-being, 12-37.
  5. Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. Jossey-bass.
  6. Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Social science & medicine36(6), 725-733. ‏
  7. Bachelard, G. (2006). The poetics of space: [the classic look at how we experience intimate places]. Beacon Press.
  8. Bakolis, I., Hammoud, R., Smythe, M., Gibbons, J., Davidson, N., Tognin, S., & Mechelli, A. (2018). Urban mind: Using smartphone technologies to investigate the impact of nature on mental well-being in real time. BioScience68(2), 134-145.
  9. Browning, WD and Kallianpurkar, N and Ryan, CO and Labruto, L and Watson, S and Knop, T. (2012). The economics of Biophilia. Terrapin Bright Green llc.
  10. Chaudhury, H., Mahmood, A., & Valente, M. (2009). The effect of environmental design on reducing nursing errors and increasing efficiency in acute care settings: a review and analysis of the literature. Environment and Behavior41(6), 755-786.
  11. Day, Lisa. (2007). Healing environments and the limits of empirical evidence. American Journal of Critical Care (AACN) 16: 86--89.
  12. De Botton, A. (2008). The architecture of happiness. Vintage. ‏
  13. Detels, R. (Ed.). (2015). Oxford textbook of global public health (Vol. 2). Oxford Textbook.
  14. Dietscher, C., Winter, U., & Pelikan, J. M. (2017). The application of salutogenesis in hospitals. The handbook of salutogenesis, 277-298.
  15. Dilani, A. (2005). A new paradigm of design and health in hospital planning. World hospitals and health services: the official journal of the International Hospital Federation41(4), 17-21.
  16. Dilani, A. (2008). Psychosocially supportive design: A salutogenic approach to the design of the physical environment. Design and Health Scientific Review1(2), 47-55.
  17. Dilani, Alan , sia, angelica. (2008). Designing the Urban Physical Environment for Better Health: New Understandings of Heal. COMMENTARY 134-139.
  18. Dilani, Alan. (2015). "ECO-DESIGN SALUTOGENIC OUTCOME." World Health Design 18-35.
  19. Dushkova, D., & Ignatieva, M. (2020). New trends in urban environmental health research: from geography of diseases to therapeutic landscapes and healing gardens. Geography, Environment, Sustainability13(1), 159-171.
  20. Edvardsson, J. D., Sandman, P. O., & Rasmussen, B. H. (2005). Sensing an atmosphere of ease: a tentative theory of supportive care settings. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences19(4), 344-353.
  21. Elliot, J., & Bayes Friba, K. (1972). Room for Improvement: A Better Environment for the Mentally Handicapped. King Edward’s Hospital Fund for London, London.
  22. Eriksson, M., & Lindström, B. (2007). Antonovsky’s sense of coherence scale and its relation with quality of life: a systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health61(11), 938-944.
  23. Eriksson, M. (2017). The sense of coherence in the salutogenic model of health. The handbook of salutogenesis, 91-96.
  24. Frankl, V. E. (1985). Man's search for meaning. Simon and Schuster. ‏
  25. Gifford, R. (2007). The consequences of living in high-rise buildings. Architectural science review50(1), 2-17.
  26. Golembiewski, J. A. (2010). Start making sense: Applying a salutogenic model to architectural design for psychiatric care. Facilities28(3-4), 100-117. ‏
  27. Golembiewski, J. (2012). Salutogenic design: The neurological basis of health-promoting environments. World Health Design: Architecture, Culture, Technology5(3), 62-69. ‏
  28. Grinde, B., & Patil, G. G. (2009). Biophilia: does visual contact with nature impact on health and well-being? International journal of environmental research and public health6(9), 2332-2343. ‏
  29. Hasselaar, E. (2006). Health performance of housing: indicators and tools (Vol. 10). IOS Press. ‏
  30. Hall, E. T. (1973). Mental health research and out-of-awareness cultural systems. Cultural Illness and Health: Essay in Human Adaption, 97-103. ‏
  31. Hall, E. T. (1990). The hidden dimension, reprint. ‏
  32. Harrop, Emily and Addis, Samia and Elliott, Eva and Williams, Gareth. 2006. "Resilience, coping and salutogenic approaches to maintaining and generating health: A review." Cardiff: Cardiff University.
  33. Heerwagen, J. H., Heubach, J. G., Montgomery, J., & Weimer, W. C. (1995). Environmental design, work, and wellbeing: managing occupational stress through changes in the workplace environment. Aaohn Journal43(9), 458-468. ‏
  34. HEIDMANN, I. T. (2006). Buss; ALMEIDA, Maria Cecília Puntel; BOEHS, Astrid Eggert; WOSNY, Antonio de Miranda; MONTICELLI, Marisa. Promoção à Saúde: Trajetória Histórica de suas Concepções. Texto Contexto Enferm. Florianópolis, 352-8. ‏
  35. Inalhan, G., & Golembiewski, J. A. (2010). Start making sense. Facilities. ‏Facilities (Emerald Group Publishing Limited).
  36. Jensen, B. B., Dür, W., & Buijs, G. (2017). The application of salutogenesis in schools. The Handbook of Salutogenesis, 225-235. ‏
  37. Jonas, W. B., Chez, R. A., Smith, K., & Sakallaris, B. (2014). Salutogenesis: the defining concept for a new healthcare system. Global advances in health and medicine3(3), 82-91. ‏
  38. Karaca, Elif. (2018). Salutogenic Approach for Designing Restorative Environments. The Journal of Academic Social Science 116--131.
  39. Kats, G. (2013). Greening our built world: costs, benefits, and strategies. Island Press. ‏
  40. Krieger, J., & Higgins, D. L. (2002). Housing and health: time again for public health action. American journal of public health92(5), 758-768. ‏
  41. Kuholski, K., Tohn, E., & Morley, R. (2010). Healthy energy-efficient housing: using a one-touch approach to maximize public health, energy, and housing programs and policies. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice16(5), S68-S74. ‏
  42. Lindström, B., & Eriksson, M. (2005). Salutogenesis. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health59(6), 440-442. ‏
  43. May, J. M. (1959). The ecology of human disease. The Ecology of Human Disease.
  44. Mendes de Leon, C. F., Glass, T. A., & Berkman, L. F. (2003). Social engagement and disability in a community population of older adults: The New Haven EPESE. American Journal of Epidemiology157(7), 633-642.‏
  45. Mittelmark, M. B., Sagy, S., Eriksson, M., Bauer, G. F., Pelikan, J. M., Lindström, B., & Arild Espnes, G. (2017). The handbook of salutogenesis. Springer Nature. ‏
  46. Norberg-Schulz, C. (1994). Genius loci: K fenomenologii architektury. Odeon. ‏
  47. Omran & Maskansazan Co. (2021). Restored April 14, 2021. http://www.rihfars.ir/PostShow.aspx?i=10
  48. Osmond, H. (1958). The seclusion room-cell or sanctuary? Mental Hospitals9, 18-19. ‏
  49. Osmond, D. H. (1966). Some psychiatric aspects of design. Who designs America. ‏
  50. Pötz, H., Bleuze, P., Sjauw En Wa, A., & Baar, T. V. (2012). Groenblauwe netwerken voor duurzame en dynamische steden= Urban green-blue grids for sustainable and dynamic cities. Delft: Coop for life. ‏
  51. Quick, J. S., Robishaw, S. B., Baylor, K. A., Snyder, D. I., & Han, J. J. (2017). Vegetable garden as therapeutic horticulture for patients with chronic pain. Pain Medicine18(11), 2252-2254. ‏
  52. Rastegar Fasaei, M. & Hosseini Fasaei, H. (2003). Fars-Nama-ye Naseri, Tehran; Amirkabir.
  53. Raymond, C. M., Frantzeskaki, N., Kabisch, N., Berry, P., Breil, M., Nita, M. R., ... & Calfapietra, C. (2017). A framework for assessing and implementing the co-benefits of nature-based solutions in urban areas. Environmental Science & Policy77, 15-24. ‏
  54. Rynor, Becky. (2010). Beautifying hospitals: a tough sell. (Can Med Assoc).
  55. Roux, A. V. D. (2003). Residential environments and cardiovascular risk. Journal of Urban Health80(4), 569-589. ‏Rynor, Becky. 2010. "Beautifying hospitals: a tough sell." (Can Med Assoc).
  56. Sanderson, C., HAGLUND, B. J., Tillgren, P. E. R., SVANSTRÖM, L., ÖSTENSON, C. G., HOLM, L. E., ... & SMAJKIC, A. (1996). Effect and stage models in community intervention programmes; and the development of the Model for Management of Intervention Programme Preparation (MMIPP). Health Promotion International11(2), 143-156. ‏
  57. Schmid, T. L., Pratt, M., & Howze, E. (1995). Policy as intervention: environmental and policy approaches to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Public Health85(9), 1207-1211. ‏
  58. Searles, H. F. (2018). Collected papers on schizophrenia and related subjects.Routledge.‏
  59. Setavand, M. H. (2019). Spatial analysis of Shiraz urban areas from the perspective of social justice with emphasis on public services. Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, 19, 171--192.
  60. Silva, A. N. D., Mendonça, M. H. M. D., & Vettore, M. V. (2008). A salutogenic approach to oral health promotion. Cadernos de saude publica24, s521-s530. ‏
  61. Stokols, D. (1992). Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. American psychologist47(1), 6. ‏
  62. Surtees, P., Wainwright, N., Luben, R., Khaw, K. T., & Day, N. (2003). Sense of coherence and mortality in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom prospective cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology158(12), 1202-1209. ‏
  63. Tones, K., & Green, J. (2004). Health promotion: planning and strategies. Sage. ‏
  64. Ulrich, R. S., & Parsons, R. (1990, April). Influences on passive plants in individual wellbeing and health. In Proceedings of the National Symposium on the Role of Horticulture in Wellbeing and Social Development, Arlington, VA (pp. 19-21). ‏
  65. Ulrich, R. S. (1997, January). A theory of supportive design for healthcare facilities. In Journal of healthcare design: proceedings from the... Symposium on Healthcare Design. Symposium on Healthcare Design (Vol. 9, pp. 3-7). ‏
  66. USGBC Research Committee and others. (2008). A national green building research agenda. November 2007. Revised Febuary.
  67. Verderber, S. (2003). Architecture for health-2050: an international perspective. The Journal of Architecture8(3), 281-302. ‏
  68. Von Schirnding, Y., Bruce, N., Smith, K., Ballard-Tremeer, G., Ezzati, M., & Lvovsky, K. (2002). Addressing the Impact of Household Energy and Indoor Air Pollution on the Health of Poor: Implications for Policy Action and Intervention Measures (p. 52). Geneva: World Health Organization. ‏
  69. Warne, M., Snyder, K., & Gådin, K. G. (2014). Adaptation and validation of a positive health scale for adolescents. Social indicators research119(2), 1079-1093.‏
  70. Wells, D. L. (2007). Domestic dogs and human health: An overview. British journal of health psychology12(1), 145-156. ‏
  71. WHO, WH. (1986). Ottawa charter for health promotion. Health Promotion 1: iii--v.
  72. Wright, J., & Burrows, L. (2004). “Being healthy”: the discursive construction of health in New Zealand children's responses to the National Education Monitoring Project. Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education25(2), 211-230. ‏
  73. Yeang, K. (2015). Introduction of Ecological Architecture and Green Design. World Health Design6, 38-47. ‏
  74. Ziegler, E. (2014). Application of a salutogenic design model to the architecture of low-income housing (Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia).