نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه معماری، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

اصل سلسله مراتب یکی از اصلی­‌ترین مفاهیم در معماری است. همچنین فضای سکونت از جمله عملکردهایی است که وجود اصل سلسله مراتب در آن بسیار ضروری است. با این حال در طول دوره‌­های مختلف و با گذشت زمان، نمود این اصل در خانه‌­های ساخته شده در سبک­‌های گوناگون معماری ایرانی به صورت­‌های متفاوتی بروز یافته است. . ترتیب قرارگیری فضاها در کنار یکدیگر و اضافه شدن برخی فضاها به ساختار فضایی خانه و همچنین تحولات فضایی آن‌ها در طول دوره‌های مختلف، به تبع نمایش این اصل در معماری چنین فضاهایی را دستخوش تغییرانی نموده است. این پژوهش که به دنبال یافتن مولفه­‌های سلسله مراتب شکلی فضایی و بررسی کیفی و کمی آن در زبان الگوی بناهای قاجار تهران می­‌باشد، به بررسی شواهد و مدارک تاریخی و فرهنگی موجود می‌­پردازد. نمونه‌­های مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق خانه‌­های سنتی مربوط به دوره قاجار در تهران و نتیجه حاصل مقایسه و ارائه تجزیه و تحلیل نهایی بر اساس نمونه­‌های مورد مطالعه خواهد بود. هدف از این پژوهش تبیین مفهوم سلسله مراتب فضایی و مقایسه نگاه شکلی به گونه در الگوی سکونت­گاهی قاجار می­‌باشد، همچنین بررسی چگونگی سیر تغییرات  سلسله مراتب در تحولات خانه‌­ها در دوران قاجار هدف دیگری است که این پژوهش به دنبال پاسخی برای آن خواهد بود. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش روش ترکیبی است و با مراجعه به میراث فرهنگی و مطالعات منابع موجود، فهرستی از خانه‌ها جمع‌آوری و از میان آن‌ها تعدادی بعنوان نمونه  به روش بحرانی و احتمالی غیرهدفمند جهت مطالعه انتخاب شده‌اند. مطالعه از رجوع به منابع و مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و میدانی و همچنین  لکه‌گذاری و اصلاح نقشه‌ها شروع و سرانجام با تجزیه و تحلیل کالبدی و ساختاری فضاها و رسم تناسبات و هندسه هر خانه به جمع‌بندی نهایی رسید. در گام بعد از داده­‌های حاصل از نمودارهای توجیهی و نرم افزار UCL Depth Map با روش نحو فضا (Space Syntax) به منظور استخراج یافته­‌ها استفاده شده و در نهایت بعد از جمع‌­آوری داده‌­ها، تحلیل صورت گرفت. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش بیانگر این است که سه شاخص عمق، اتصال و هم‌پیوندی در سه دوره قبل از ناصری، ناصری و بعد از ناصری به مرور زمان با کاهش درونگرایی، عمومیت و یکپارچگی همراه بوده­‌اند.

چکیده تصویری

تبیین مفهوم سلسله مراتب شکلی-فضایی در الگوی سکونتگاهی قاجار(نمونه موردی :خانه های اعیانی تهران)

تازه های تحقیق

- یافتن مولفه ‌های سلسله مراتب شکلی-فضایی در زبان الگوی بناهای قاجار تهران
- بررسی کیفی و کمی سلسله مراتب شکلی فضایی در زبان الگوی بناهای قاجار تهران
- استفاده از روش تحقیق نوین نحو فضا و نرم افزار UCL Deptemap به منظور استخراج یافته‌ها

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the Concept of Spatial Hierarchy in the Settlement Model of Qajar Period (Case-Study: Tehran Aristocratic Houses)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahan Danesh 1
  • Khosro Movahed 2
  • Maliheh Taghipour 3

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: The principle of hierarchy is one of the main concepts in architecture. Living space is a place in which studying the principle of hierarchy is necessary. The Iranian residential tradition has long been built upon various experiences of nature, culture, and religion in the framework of seemingly diverse bodies and sometimes with many contradictions and similar principles. Therefore, scrutinizing the past architecture is incomplete without searching the popular style of architecture and recognizing its socio-cultural components. In order to understand the effect of architecture, it seems necessary to review its context, daily interactions, and the material and spiritual needs that have crystallized in the form of that particular architecture. The architecture principle has been expressed in different ways in residential buildings in various styles of Iranian architecture. Due to this principle, the arrangement of the connected spaces and the added spaces to the building's spatial structure in different periods has undergone various changes and transformations in its appearance. Yet, it has sustained its roots and originality. Today, contemporary designers and employers have created buildings disregarding the rich Iranian culture. This research, seeking to find the components of spatial hierarchy and its qualitative and quantitative components in the language of the Qajar building model in Tehran, examines the existing historical and cultural evidence. The study scrutinizes the traditional houses built in Qajar period in Tehran and compares the case studies for final analysis. This study aims to explain the concept of spatial hierarchy and compare the morphological view of the residential buildings in the settlement model of Qajar period.
Methods: The research adopts a combined research method, referring to the cultural heritage and studies of available resources. As a result, a list of houses has been prepared, and some have been selected by the critical and non-targeted methods for further scrutiny. The samples studied in this study are traditional houses of Qajar period in Tehran (pre-Nasserite period: before the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah / Nasserite period: Nasser al-Din Shah's reign / post-Nasserite period: Muzaffar al-Din Shah reign before Pahlavi ). The final results are achieved based on the comparison and presentation of the final analysis of the studied samples. This study has been conducted with reference to a bibliographic method, field observation, and mapping methods. It has finally come to the final conclusion by physically and structurally analyzing the spaces and understanding residential proportions and geometry.
Findings: The data obtained from the explanatory diagrams and UCL Depthmap software were used with the space syntax method to extract the results. The data were reviewed and analyzed after collection. The spatial connections in the late Qajar period show almost no vestibule for accessing the connected spaces. Adding a separate entrance was more considered in design and construction. Finally, in the pre-Nasserite period, the highest level of spatial integration and depth is observed.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the three indicators of depth, connection, and interconnectedness in the three periods before Nasserite / Nasserite and after Nasserite have been associated with a decrease in introversion, generality, and integration over time.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • spatial hierarchy
  • Settlement pattern
  • Typology
  • traditional housing (aristocratic house)
  • Qajar
  • Tehran
  1. Ardalan, N. & Bakhtiar, L. (2001). Sense of Unity, A mystical tradition in Iranian architecture. Translated by Hamid Shahrokh. Tehran: Khak Publication
  2. Baani Masoud, A. (2009). Contemporary Iranian architecture: in the struggle between tradition and modernity. Honare Memarie Qarn (the Architectural Art of the Century) Publication, Second Edition, p.710
  3. Fotuhi, E. & Islami, Gh.R. (2016). Hidden hierarchical system in the tradition of Iranian residence. Case study: The way the concept of hierarchy emerged in the native architecture of Gilan and Yazd (Iran). PhD thesis. University of Tehran. College of Fine Arts
  4. Ghobadian, V. (2013). Stylistics and theoretical foundations in contemporary Iranian architecture. Elme Memar (the science of architecture) Publication. 2(8), pp. 24-39.
  5. Groat, L. N., & Wang, D. (2013). Architectural research methods: John Wiley & Sons.
  6. Grotter, Y. (2007). Aesthetics in architecture. Translated by Jahanshah Pakzad & Abdolreza Homayoun. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University.
  7. Heydari, A.A.; Ghasemian, I & Kiaei, M. (2017). Analysis of the spatial structure of traditional Iranian houses by space syntax method. Quarterly of Studies on Iranian Islamic city. 7(28), pp. 21-33.
  8. Hillier, B., & Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge Univ. In: Pr.  
  9. Ismail, A., & Ariffin, F. M. (2015). Exploring the insights into the component of landscape element that influences a successful historical waterfront development: Case of Venice waterfront. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(24), 77-82.
  10. Klarqvist, B. (2015). A space syntax glossary. NA, 6(2).
  11. Mahdavi Nejad, M. & Nagahani, N. (2011). The effect of visual literacy on the perception of beauty in architectural works. Armanshahr (Utopia) Journal. 7(14), pp. 51-61.
  12. Maryam, A. (2013). Architecture and culture in aristocratic houses in Qajar era, Iranian anthropological researches.
  13. Mayhew, S. (2015). A dictionary of geography: Oxford quick reference.
  14. Memarian, Gh.H. (2002). Architectural space syntax. Sofeh Journal. p. 35
  15. Mohamadian M. (2007). Hierarchy of confidentiality in Iranian mosques, Journal of Fine Arts. 29(2), pp. 59-68.
  16. Mustafa, F. A., & Hassan, A. S. (2013). Mosque layout design: An analytical study of mosque layouts in the early Ottoman period. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2(4), 445-456.
  17. Naghizadeh, M. (1998). Attributes of Islamic city in Islamic texts. Quarterly of Fine Arts. 4(5), pp. 41-67.
  18. Noqrekar, A. (2010). Theoretical principles of architecture. Payame Noor University Press, Tehran.
  19. Peponis, J., Hadjinikolaou, E., Livieratos, C., & Fatouros, D. A. (1989). The spatial core of urban culture. Ekistics, 43-55.
  20. Pirnia, M. and Memarian, Gh. (2010). Stylistics of Iranian Architecture, Soroushe Danesh Publications, Tehran.
  21. Rappaport, Amos. (1969). “House form and culture”, United State Of America, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee.
  22. Soltanzadeh, H. (1993). Entrance spaces in traditional Iranian architecture. Cultural Research Office. pp. 66-79.
  23. Tabasi, M. & Fazl Nasab, F. (2012). Recognizing the role and impact of Safavid era’s ideological currents in the formation of the entrance of mosques in Isfahan school. Journal of Fine Arts. 17, pp. 81-90.
  24. Tabibian, M.; Charbgou, N. & Abdullahi Mehr, A. (2011). Reflection of the hierarchy principle in Iranian-Islamic cities. Armanshahr (Utopia) Journal. 4(7), pp. 45-59.
  25. Taghipour, M. & Heydari, A.A. (2018). Analysis of confidentiality  in traditional houses based on mass to space ratio. Journal of Architecture of hot and dry climate. 6(8), pp. 77-99.
  26. Taghvaei, V. (2007). The Iranian architecture’s hidden space system and structure. Journal of Fine Arts. pp.30, 43-52.
  27. Tandy, CRV. (1967). The isovist method of landscape survey, in Symposium: Methods of Landscape Analysis (Ed).
  28. Vasigh, B.; Pashutanizadeh, A. & Bemanian, M.R. (2009). Places and housing from the viewpoint of Islam. Interdisciplinary research on the Holy Quran. 1(3), pp. 65-72.
  29. Zolfagharzadeh, H. and Zarkesh, N. (2016). Exploring the hierarchy principle in Islamic architecture and folding. Fourth International Congress of Civil Engineering, Architecture, and Urban Development. Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University.
  30. Zomarshidi, H. (2010). Teachings of Iranian architecture and residential building construction from the Qajar period until today. Quarterly of Iranian City Studies.