نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای شهرسازی، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

دگرگونی ارزش‌ها، آداب فکری و زیستی و تغییر رابطه انسان با جهان و طبیعت، مخدوش شدن انسجام دیرینه کالبدی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی از جمله چالش‌های شهرهای ایرانی در دوران معاصر است که فراموشی خاطرات جمعی و دگرگونی مفهوم شهر را در پی داشته است. هدف از نوشتار حاضر، مطالعه آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی در راستای حفاظت از مفهوم شهر و خاطره جمعی در مرکز تاریخی تهران است. پژوهش، از روش کیفی و راهبرد پدیدارشناسانه (پدیدارشناسی توصیفی) استفاده می­‌کند. در این نوشتار، ضمن مرور نوشتگان مرتبط با خاطره جمعی، دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی، یک چارچوب نظری برای انجام مطالعه پدیدارشناسانه تدوین گردیده و بر پایه آن مصاحبه­ عمیق نیمه­‌ساختاریافته با 41 نفر از اهالی مرکز تاریخی تهران (از متولدین دهه­‌های گوناگون و از اقشار و طیف‌های اجتماعی متفاوت) به انجام رسیده است. نتایج این پژوهش، علاوه بر گونه­‌بندی خاطرات جمعی (خاطرات خانه و محله، خاطرات فرهنگی-اجتماعی، مذهبی، ملی-سیاسی، طبیعی و شهری)، صور‌ت‌­بندی نظری مفاهیم «دگرگونی»، «پیوستگی» و «پایایی» را در بر می­گیرد. صورت­بندی نظری مفهوم دگرگونی در مرکز تاریخی تهران، حکایت از چهار سندروم یا نشانگان «دگرگونی متداوم»، «ترک محله پدری»، «آشیانه­ خالی» و «فراموشی متداوم» دارد. برپایه چارچوب نظری پژوهش، می­توان گفت که آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی در مرکز تاریخی تهران در حدودی است که در آن، «دگرگونی متداوم» محدوده متوقف گردد و ساختار هویت­بخش آن از طریق غلبه فرهنگ مرمت بر فرهنگ تخریب و نوسازی، حفظ شخصیت مرکز تاریخی و حفظ سبک زندگی و شیوه سکونت اصیل تداوم یابد که این خود متضمن «توقف ترک محله پدری» و «بازگشت به آشیانه­های خالی» است. همچنین لنگرگاههای خاطره از طریق حفظ یا یازیابی سرنخهای کالبدی (ابنیه تاریخی)، سرنخهای اجتماعی (بافت اجتماعی) و سرنخهای فرهنگی (قصه­ها و ضرب­المثلها و زبان شیرین تهران) تثبیت گردند که این خود منجر به توقف «فراموشی متداوم» و حفظ خاطره جمعی خواهد شد.

تازه های تحقیق

- طبقه‌­بندی خاطرات جمعی مرکز تاریخی تهران به خاطرات مرتبط با خانه و محله، خاطرات فرهنگی-اجتماعی، خاطرات مذهبی، خاطرات ملی-سیاسی، خاطرات طبیعی و خاطرات شهری

- صورت‌­بندی نظری مفهوم دگرگونی در مرکز تاریخی تهران با اشاره به چهار سندروم/نشانگان «دگرگونی متداوم»، «ترک محله پدری»، «آشیانه­ خالی» و «فراموشی متداوم»

- تعریف آستانه بهینه دگرگونی، پیوستگی و پایایی در مرکز تاریخی تهران برپایه توقف «دگرگونی متداوم»، تداوم ساختار هویت‌­بخش و تثبیت لنگرگاه‌های خاطره آن از طریق حفظ یا یازیابی سرنخ‌های کالبدی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Theoretical framework in determining the optimal threshold of change, continuity and constancy of the concept of collective memory in the historical center of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Hosseini Koumleh 1
  • Mehran Alalhesabi 2
  • Seyed Abdolhadi Daneshpour 2

1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Urban Planning, School of Architecture and environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, School of Architecture and environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and objectives: Change of values, intellectual customs, lifestyles and human relationship with the universe and nature, distortion of long-standing physical, socio-cultural cohesion are among the challenges of contemporary Iranian cities that have led to forgetting collective memories and changing the concept of the city. The research problem begins with the general concept of "collective memory" in Iranian cities and in order to observe the indigenous originality of the research, the research has been defined based on a "problem-oriented" research with a comparative evaluation of existing challenges of collective memory in Iranian cities and identifying the concept of "change" as the key issue of collective memory in Iranian cities. Therefore, while delimiting the scope of the study, the purpose of the research is to study change, continuity and constancy of the concept of city and collective memory and determine its optimal threshold in the historical center of Tehran as a symbol of change in Iranian cities.
Method: The research uses a qualitative method and a phenomenological strategy (descriptive phenomenology). In this article, while reviewing the literature of collective memory, change, continuity and constancy, a theoretical framework for phenomenological study has been developed and based on it, an in-depth semi-structured interview with 41 residents of Tehran's historical center (people born in different decades and among various social groups) has been conducted.
Findings: The results, in addition to the classification of collective memories (home and neighborhood memories such as the culture of acquaintance and neighborhood, courtyard, children's games in the alley, socio-cultural memories such as the nicknames of people, storytelling, ritual of Pahlavani and peaceful coexistence of religions, religious memories including home prayers, Muharrams and Mid-Sha'ban celebrations, national-political memories such as the coup of August 19, 1953, the Islamic Revolution and the Imposed War, natural memories like the organic relationship of human with nature at home and neighborhood, water supply system and Qanats, and harmony with nature through summer migration to Shemiran and urban memories such as new streets building in Reza Shah reign and the construction of modern urban buildings and facilities such as Plasco Building and electric buses), include the theoretical formulation of the concepts of “change”, “continuity” and “constancy” in the context of the historical center of Tehran. In order to explain and analyze the concept of "change" in the historical center of Tehran, the theory of "continuous change" has been proposed, which introduces a kind of repetitive and continuous patterns of radical change in the city. According to this theory, the historical center of Tehran in its contemporary period, after its encounter with modernity, faces four syndromes including "continuous change syndrome", "syndrome of leaving the paternal neighborhood", "Empty Nest Syndrome" and "continuous forgetfulness syndrome". Also, the analysis of the concept of continuity shows that the "continuity of the identity structure" of the historical center of Tehran in some physical dimension (through the presence of historical buildings and architectural traditions), functional dimension (continuity of religious sites, the continuity of residence in some neighborhoods and functional continuance of Tehran Bazaar) and meaning-memory dimension (continuity of local character of some places and neighborhoods) are relatively still established; However, in terms of ecological structure, this connection has been distorted over time and therefore needs to be restored by restoring the role of wooded yards in creating a balance between private and public green spaces. Persistence of some historical buildings and urban spaces (such as Golestan Palace, 30th Tir Street), some religious rituals, historical bazaars and some natural elements (such as the continuous shadow of Alborz and the plane tree of Imamzadeh Yahya) also indicate the constancy of physical, behavioral, subjective and natural anchors of memory in the historical center of Tehran.
Conclusion: Based on the theoretical framework of the research, it can be said that the optimal threshold of change, continuity and constancy in the historical center of Tehran is to the extent that the “continuous change” of the area stops and its identity structure continues through dominance of restoration culture over culture of demolition and new construction, preservation of the character of the historical center, original lifestyles and permanent dwelling, which entails “stopping leaving the paternal neighborhood” and “returning to empty nests”. Also, the anchors of memory should be stabilized by preserving or finding physical clues (historical buildings), social clues (social context) and cultural clues (stories, proverbs and the sweet language of Tehran), which in turn leads to cessation of “continuous forgetfulness” and preservation of collective memory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Collective Memory
  • change
  • Continuity
  • constancy
  • optimal threshold
  • historical center of Tehran
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