در سالیان اخیر مطالعات ویژهای در جهت شناخت و شناسایی مزارع مسکون تاریخی در فلات مرکزی ایران آغاز شده است. جغرافیای فرهنگی شهرهایی مانند قم مأمن این گونه از معماری ایران است. مزرعه قاضیبالا در کنار مزارع دیگری چون سزاوار، البرز، کَهَک وچشمهعلی در برههای از تاریخ به ویژه دوره قاجار به وجود آمدند، توسعه یافتند و هماکنون نیز بقایای آنها در پیرامون قم دیده میشود. مسئله اصلی تحقیق آگاهی اندک جوامع در شناسایی و شناخت مزارع مسکون تاریخی است. بسیاری از مزارع اربابی بدون توجه به هویت آنها در حال بازسازی نادرست هستند و یا با نامها و عناوین دیگری در فهرست آثار ملی به ثبت رسیدهاند. مزرعه قاضی بالا در قم نیز دچار این مسائل بوده است. دو پرسش در این تحقیق مطرح میشود: 1. مجموعه قاضیبالا با کدام یک از معیارهای شناسایی مزارع اربابی ایران انطباق دارد؟ 2. شناسایی قاضیبالا به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی چه کمکی به حفاظت از آن میکند؟ هدف تحقیق معرفی مزرعه قاضی بالا به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی در ایران است. بنابراین سعی میشود با رهیافت تفسیری و راهبرد تفسیری تاریخی به موضوع پرداخته شود و در قالب مطالعات میدانی و سندپژوهی، یافتههای تحقیق محقق شود. یافتهها نشان میدهد تاکنون شش معیار برای شناسایی مزارع اربابی در ایران شناخته شده است و مزرعه قاضیبالا در انطباق با معیارهایی چون استقرار عناصرکالبدی، سندیت تاریخی، تداوم تاریخی، مالکیت اربابی، وجود جمعیت ثابت و وضعیت پایدار به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی شناخته شدهاست. شناسایی این اثر به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی میتواند معرفی، حفاظت و احیاء آن را تحت تأثیر قراردهد و از دخالتهای کالبدی و کارکردی نامناسب ذیمدخلان و ذینفعان جلوگیری کند.
تازه های تحقیق
- مزرعه قاضیبالا در انطباق با معیارهایی چون استقرار عناصرکالبدی، سندیت تاریخی، تداوم تاریخی، مالکیت اربابی، وجود جمعیت ثابت و وضعیت پایدار به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی شناخته شدهاست.
- شناسایی این اثر به عنوان یک مزرعه اربابی میتواند معرفی، حفاظت و احیاء آن را تحت تأثیر قراردهد و از دخالتهای کالبدی و کارکردی نامناسب ذیمدخلان و ذینفعان جلوگیری کند.
- اغلب مزارع تاریخی مانند قاضی بالا براساس معیارهای ششگانه شناخت مزارع اربابی، قابل شناسایی و معرفی هستند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Understanding the Qazibala Farmstead Based on the Six Criteria of Farmsteads Owned by Lords
Background and Objectives: In recent years, extensive studies have identified historic residential farmsteads in the central plateau of Iran. The cultural geography of cities such as Qom is an example of Iranian architecture. Farmsteads like Sezavar, Alborz, Kahak, and Cheshmeh Ali, as well as Qazibala farmstead, were formed at some point in history, particularly during the Qajar era, and their remnants can still be seen in and around Qom. The study focuses on communities’ lack of knowledge on recognizing historic farmsteads. Regardless of their identity, many lord-owned farmsteads are being improperly reconstructed or registered on the National Monuments List under different names and titles. The Qazibala farmstead in Qom has also faced these problems. This study focuses on two primary questions; 1. Which criteria for identifying the lordly farmsteads of Iran corresponds to the Qazibala Collection? 2. How does identifying the Qazibala as a lordly farmstead help protect it? The research aimed to introduce the Qazibala farmstead as a lord-owned farmstead in Iran. To this end, the interpretive approach and historical interpretive strategy are easily used with document research and field studies. The findings revealed that six criteria for identifying lord-owned farmsteads in Iran had been identified. So, the Qazibala farmstead is recognized as Lord-owned Farmstead following criteria such as the establishment of physical elements, historical documentation, historical continuity, lordly ownership, fixed population, and stable status. Therefore, identifying this complex as a Lord-owned farmstead can affect its introduction, preservation, and revitalization and prevent improper physical and functional interference from stakeholders.
Methods: The research aims to introduce the Qazibala farmstead as a lord-owned farmstead in Iran. To this end, the interpretive approach and historical interpretive strategy were used with bibliographic research and field studies. To give the researcher complete access to the current condition of the farmstead, the farm’s territory and its components, including the mansion, reservoir, tower and barrow, garden, and Qanats, were initially mapped, photographed, and documented. Following that, historical and legal documents, like Naser al-Din Shah’s travelogue, genealogy, deeds, and pictures of the Harvard University Document Center were studied, and interviews with Mohammad Vafaei and Afshin Bakhtiar were conducted to complete the research. The overlapping of the preceding information produced findings that were interpreted and analyzed to meet the six criteria of lord-owned farmsteads in Iran’s central climate.
Findings: During the Qajar period, the Qazibala farm was managed using the feudal lord system. This system was maintained in the same order and under the ownership of lords such as Haj Hossein Khan Khalaj, Haj Isaq Khan, and Sardar Motazed until the constitutional period and the first period of the National Assembly. Many farmsteads, particularly the Qazibala farmstead, lost their original form and function during the second Pahlavi period, as the Iranian Land Reform began, and their owners dispersed and migrated. Lotf Ali Khan, the previous owner, entrusted the farmstead to Nazanin Vafai after the Islamic Revolution. The earthquake of 1980 also destroyed a portion of the farms’ tower, barrow, and fence. The social and political changes allowed farm workers and serfs to cross the farm’s fence into the fields, forming the Qazibala village. According to the research findings, the Qazibala farm meets all six criteria. The Qazibala farmstead meets the first criterion, which is the establishment of physical elements. Within this field were features like agricultural land, Qanats, mosques, manors, towers, and barrows, which are still standing or currently experiencing a revival. This farmstead meets the second criterion because it is credible according to two historical travelogues by two venerable and seasoned authors, along with numerous antiquated images and records that support the farm’s credentials. Based on the third criterion, along with the existence of architectural patterns in the physical components, and the mentioned documents, this farmstead dates back to the historical eras of the Qajar and Mohammad Shah. According to the studies conducted in the fourth criterion, the owners of the farm from the Qajar period until it was converted into a village were Mohammad Hossein Khan, Haj Eshaq Khan, Motazed Nezam, Zinat al-Moluk, and Lotf Ali Khan; thus, this farmstead has been privately owned by their lords. Moreover, the fifth criterion reveals that, according to the mentioned documents, this farmstead had a fixed and floating population from the start. Their number increased from 266 to 85 people between 1346 and 1390. These changes and demographic sequence have demonstrated the farm’s viability over time. The Qazibala farmstead is also valid in the sixth criterion. Pictures 10–13 depict the farmstead’s evolution from the beginning to the present, demonstrating its stability despite changes in shape and substance.
Conclusion: Previous research demonstrates that the Qazibala complex satisfies the six requirements for identifying lord-owned farmsteads and is recognized as one. This farm was overlooked during the course of social, economic, and political changes and developments. Still, in the form of a “cohesive whole” and with the presence of all possessions and associated elements, it can now be referred to as “Qazibala Lord-owned Farmstead” and be registered, according to documents and archives in the list of national monuments of Iran. Registration based on accurate information can help introduce and preserve this site. By registering this complex as a lord-owned farmstead, all its associated elements will be physically and functionally linked. None of these components can be subjected to inappropriate physical intervention on their own, but their role in the farmstead, along with other related elements such as reservoirs, mills, Qanats, and waterways, should be understood before taking appropriate action. Moreover, by stating that this site is a residential farmstead owned by a lord, it can be classified as an “Important Agricultural Heritage” and registered in the GIAHS system. The GIAHS secretariat in Iran can prepare the global registration file with five criteria based on executive instructions. With this action, many related data in the architectural, agricultural, economic, social, political, cultural, legal, and judicial fields hidden in the Qazibala farmstead and other farms will be introduced and then placed on the path of dynamic preservation based on time and place requirements.