امروزه جهان یک گام اساسی از توسعه سنتی به سوی توسعه دانشپایه برداشته است. توسعه شهری دانشپایه یک موضوع بحث برانگیز در میان سازمانهای بینالمللی، مراجع ذیصلاح در شهرها و همینطور پژوشگران بوده است. آینده مناطق شهری خصوصا در کشورهای در حال توسعه به صورت روزافزون وابسته به ظرفیت تولید، جذب، حفظ و تقویت دانش است. پژوهش حاضر به واکاوی و یکپارچهسازی نظرات، الگوها و تجارب در رویکرد توسعه شهری دانشپایه به روش تحلیل کیفی محتوا میپردازد و از طریق طیف لیکرت و اولویتدهی توسط 20 کارشناس برجسته، مولفهها و شاخصهای توسعه شهری دانشپایه مشخص شده است. 6 مولفه اساسی برای بهبود شرایط و براساس نظرات کارشناسان بنا به چالشهای پیشروی توسعه شهری در ایران مطرح شد که اولین و مهمترین مولفه مدیریت دانشی و در ادامه اقتصاد دانش پایه در رتبه دوم ، فناوری و اطلاعات رتبه سوم ، محیط دانشی رتبه چهارم، کارکنان دانش رتبه پنجم و مکان دانش در رتبه آخر امتیازدهی شدهاند. در پایان با توجه به توسعه تکنوکراتیک و منسوخ در ایران، بهترین گزینه توسعه شهری دانشپایه است.
تازه های تحقیق
- برای اولین بار در این مقاله از طریق تحلیل محتوی کیفی به جمعبندی مولفهها و شاخصهای توسعه شهری دانشپایه پرداخته شده است.
- یکی از دستاوردهای این مقاله اولویتبندی مولفهها و شاخصهای توسعه شهری دانشپایه میباشد که هم از طریق تحلیل محتوا و هم جمعبندی نظرات متخصصین، غربالگری و بدست آمده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Developing a Conceptual Framework for Knowledge-Based Urban Development by Integrating and Analyzing Theories
Background and Objectives: Knowledge has been a vital resource for progress since human existence on Earth began. However, the rapid delivery and completion of explicit and targeted knowledge management as a strategic resource are new these days. In fact, due to a lack of understanding of the concept of knowledge assets and its resources, and regarding the lack of knowledge of content management development in cities, the nature of knowledge development and its pattern in the cities of developing countries needs to be clarified. There is also no written plan to move towards knowledge-based urban development. In this research, the influential components of knowledge-based urban development in Iran have been provided by analyzing and integrating the opinions of relevant thinkers.
Methods: This research has a qualitative nature in terms of descriptive-analytical targeting, and it is conducted by content analysis and comparative research methods. The analytical approach of this article is non-interventional, and it is only used for highlighting and systematically expressing the optimal patterns and points that have been extracted from a collection of texts. Therefore, the bibliographic method has been followed to collect information. First, the opinions of thinkers were collected in three time periods of 1990-2000, 2000-2010, and 2010-2016 regarding knowledge-based urban development. Thereafter, the models and successful experiences in this type of development were collected and finally analyzed through categorical content analysis. The data were coded, and the Likert scale was used for the survey, which was theoretically saturated with 20 experts using the snowball sampling method after the screening. In the end, the indicators were prioritized by these people.
Findings: After analyzing thinkers’ views in three different decades, examining the experiences of cities and countries in perspective and practice, and analyzing urban development patterns, the quality of criteria was analyzed. According to this method, using the Likert spectrum, six components, and twenty-five indicators were obtained based on the consensus of 20 urban experts, including professors, managers, and experts in this field. The obtained data were used to analyze potential cities in Iran in the realization of knowledge-based urban development. Finally, experts were asked to rate the components of knowledge-based urban development concerning Iran. First, the knowledge or institutional management component was prioritized at the top, and then the economic component, technology and communications, urban environment, knowledge indicators, and finally, the priority knowledge location were put into scrutiny. The main causes of the mentioned challenges were the inefficiency of management, the lack of integration, and the inexistence of integrated knowledge management in Iran, leading to the lack of realization of knowledge-based urban development.
Conclusion: Urban development is a knowledge-based development in the 21st cities century resulting from extensive social, economic, environmental, managerial, and physical changes. According to extensive studies and projects in developed and developing countries, urban development has performed very well, and it can replace the current urban development plans in the world, given the existing context. One of the challenges is the need for integrated urban management to realize knowledge-based urban development. Another challenge is the need for more effective communication between universities, units, and educational institutions with growth places or knowledge-based industries to exploit the infrastructure and facilities and prevent the leaving of knowledge-making employees from the knowledge context. Another important challenge relates to a passive society that does not participate, especially in urban affairs, and creates social divisions. Another challenge is the need for more knowledgeable staff with political and social roots. As mentioned in this study, elite knowledge employees want adequate and appropriate infrastructure in this environment; however, when the vision of basic knowledge in Iran remains only theoretical, and the necessary infrastructure is not provided to attract these employees, brain drain occurs daily. Another challenge is the mono-product economy and the inflexibility of the market and government interference in private affairs, which can be seen in the social, managerial, and even ecological context. The impact of technocratic, inflexible, and coercive decisions on economic affairs is evident. Therefore, this development will not take place except in societies with good and transparent governance and a democratic society with cultural diversity and adequate and receptive infrastructure.
این مقاله برگرفته از رساله دکتری نویسنده نخست با عنوان «ارائه چارچوب مفهومی خلاقیت و نوآوری شهری با رویکرد توسعه شهری دانشپایه، مقایسه سه شهر ایران» میباشد که به راهنمایی نویسنده دوم و مشاوره نویسنده سوم در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قزوین انجام گرفته است.
This article is derived from the first author`s doctoral thesis entitled “Providing a conceptual framework of urban creativity and innovation in the process of knowledge-based urban development (KBUD), Case study: Comparison of three cities in Iran ”, supervised by the second authors and advised by the third, at Islamic Azad University Qazvin branch.