محله دارای پیشینه ای طولانی در شهرنشینی ایران است. در حال حاضر محلات نقش مهمی را در برنامهها و طرحهای محلی در شهرها و جایگاه مهمی را در توسعه شهری بر عهده دارند. یکی از موضوعات مهم در ارتباط با مفهوم محله ای، تعیین مناسب و صحیح از قلمرو محلات و نقش ساکنین محله در این میان است. در این زمینه با وجود مطالعات انجام شده در کشورهای غربی، مطالعات بسیار کمی در داخل کشور انجام شده است. هدف تحقیق این است که اولاً میزان جمعی بودن ادراک ساکنین از قلمرو محلات را مشخص نماید و ثانیاً چگونگی تاثیر متغیرهای جنسیت، سن،تحصیلات، اشتغال، مدت زمان سکونت، نوع مالکیت ،نحوه اقامت و داشتن روابط همسایگی را در ادراک ساکنین از قلمرو محلات بررسی و تحلیل نماید. روش تحقیق کمّی و پیمایشی به همراه تحلیلهای آماری و تحلیل اطلاعات مکانی است. به این منظور تعداد 600 پرسشنامه ترکیبی به همراه نقشه ضمیمه در 6 محله از محله بندی طرح تفصیلی شهر مشهد توزیع گردید. روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای بود. نقشههای ادراکی به دست آمده از قلمرو محله با استفاده از GIS مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمونهای آماری نشان می دهد ادراک ساکنین از قلمرو محلات با محلههای قراردادی که طرحهای توسعه شهری آن را تعریف می کنند، تفاوت دارد. میانگین مساحت قلمرو ادراکی محله در بافتهای مختلف شهری با یکدیگر دارای تفاوت معنی دار است. همچنین گروه مردان و مالکین واحدهای مسکونی به صورت معناداری نسبت به گروههای دیگر ، قلمرو محله را بزرگتر ادراک مینمایند و ساکنینی که خانه دار هستند و محصّلین نسبت به گروههای دیگر شاغلین، به طور معنا داری قلمرو محله را کوچکتر ادراک مینمایند. همچنین مقاله توصیه هایی در مورد به کار گیری ادراک ساکنین در فرآیند تعیین قلمرو محلات را ارائه مینماید.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Conceptual Analysis of Neighborhood Territory based on Residents’ Perception using Geographic Information System (GIS) (Case study: Mashhad Neighborhoods)
Currently, neighborhoods play an important role in local plans and programs in cities and have an important status in urban development. Urban neighborhoods are referred to as the key to urban development, public participation, and giving identity to urban environments. On the other hand, in Iranian urbanization also neighborhood has a very long history and it has been one of the main elements in the structure of Iranian cities.
One important issue in relation to neighborhood concept is the proper definition of the territory of neighborhoods. Many of the plans and programs provided for development, improvement, and enhancement of neighborhoods are somehow linked to the territory of neighborhoods and their definition. Meanwhile, the first step is to correctly define the dimensions and boundaries of neighborhoods and the role of neighborhood residents. In this regard, despite studies carried out in western countries and the development of methods to assess and analyze perceptions of residents of the territory, there have been very few studies in the country.
The present study aims to firstly determine the extent of collectiveness of residents’ perceptions of neighborhoods’ territory and secondly examine and analyze how the eight variables (derived from individual differences among neighborhood residents) affect residents’ perceptions of neighborhood territory. The considered variables are gender, age, education, job, duration of residence, type of ownership, mode of residence (native, non-native), and having neighborhood relations. First, the theoretical foundations associated with the study are reviewed and then the methods used to define neighborhood territory are introduced using residents’ opinions.
The research method is quantitative and survey along with statistical analysis and spatial information analysis. For this purpose, 600 combined questionnaires along with annex map were distributed in 6 neighborhoods of Mashhad according to the neighborhoods determined in Detailed Plan of the city of Mashhad (including neighborhoods of Sarshur, Sa’ad Abad, Samzghand, Touraj, Shahrbani Town and neighborhood 9 of Qasim Abad). Sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. The information analysis process was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, descriptive information of residents’ perception of the neighborhood was analyzed and in the second stage, the information obtained from cognitive maps of residents from the territory of the neighborhood was analyzed using Geographic Information System (GIS).
The study results show that the majority of respondents try to define their place of residence in the framework of a neighborhood territory. Regarding the variables of neighborhood name and location of the neighborhood center, in most neighborhoods, there is disagreement among the residents. Meanwhile, local centers and neighborhood mosques play an important role in residents’ perceptions of neighborhood territory.
Analysis of the information regarding the neighborhood’s perceived territory shows that in all neighborhoods, the average perceived territory area of the neighborhood is lower than the contracted neighborhood area in the Detailed Plan. Overlap rates in the studied neighborhoods were reported as ranging between 10 to 70 percent among residents.
The results of examining common points in neighborhood borders show that in most neighborhoods the boundaries of the contracted neighborhood territory in the Detailed Plan in four geographical directions are different from the neighborhood borders perceived by the residents. Also, in the respondents’ answers, the location of the common area territory in each of the neighborhoods is mostly based on the activity centers within the neighborhoods.
Results of Kruskal-Wallis statistical test show that residents’ perceptions of neighborhoods’ territories in different urban contexts are different from the contracted neighborhoods defined in urban development plans. Also, the average perceived territory areas in different urban contexts are significantly different from each other.
To examine the variables of individual differences of residents and how they affect the residents’ perceptions, the mean area index of residents’ perceptions of the neighborhood territory was used. Mann-Whitney statistical test was used to analyze the three variables of gender, type of ownership, and type of residence; and Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the five variables of education, age, duration of residence, type of occupation, and the number of neighborhood relations. The results show that males and owners of residential units significantly perceive the neighborhood territory larger than the other groups, and residents who are housewives and students, compared to other groups of occupations, significantly perceive the neighborhood territory smaller than the other groups of employees. Regarding the variables of age, duration of residence, level of education, and the amount of neighborhood relations, there were no significant differences in residents’ perceptions of neighborhood territory.
The present study provides recommendations on application of residents’ perceptions in the process of defining neighborhoods’ territories and determining variables in this regard. Also, it is recommended to use new tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS) and its analytical tools in the process of determining neighborhoods’ territories.