آتلیهها در دانشکدههای معماری به مثابه ابزار اصلی آموزش میباشند که در آن دانشجویان در معرض حل دستهای از مسئلههای طراحی قرار میگیرند. از آنجا که فرسودگی تحصیلی موجب میشود فرایند یادگیری روندی نزولی طی کند، کاهش آن مورد توجه محیطهای آکادمیک خواهد بود. علاوه بر این شیوههای آموزشی، از جمله بازیوارسازی بررسی و بهروز شده و طی سالیان و با اهداف مختلف استفاده شده است. هدف از اجرای این پژوهش بررسی اثربخشی آموزش بازیوار طراحی معماری در مقطع تحصیلی کارشناسی، بر کاهش میزان فرسودگی تحصیلی دانشجویان و در نتیجه ارتقا فرایند یادگیری طراحی است. پژوهش حاضر به شیوهی آزمایشی و با طرح پیشآزمون-پسآزمون با گروه کنترل اجرا شد. جامعهی آماری این پژوهش دانشجویان طرح 4 معماری دانشگاه آزاد واحد پرند بودند که شصت نفر از آنها به صورت تصادفی برای شرکت در این پژوهش انتخاب شدند و در دو گروه مداخله و کنترل قرار گرفتند. جهت گردآوری دادهها از پرسشنامه استاندارد فرسودگی تحصیلی(MBI-GS(S برای آنالیز آماری دادهها، از نرم افزار SPSS.22 استفاده شد. بر اساس یافتههای این پژوهش میتوان نتیجه گرفت که آموزش بازیوار در طراحی معماری در کاهش فرسودگی تحصیلی مؤثر بوده است، لذا استفاده از این شیوه به منظور کاهش فرسودگی تحصیلی و بهبود یادگیری طراحی دانشجویان معماری پیشنهاد میگردد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Effectiveness of Gamification Education on Architectural Students' Academic Burnout and its Role in the Learning Process of Design
Architecture education has always been associated with two different and complementary processes: creative thinking and linear / technical thinking. Today, the process of training an architect in an academic environment is usually based on design studios, which is complemented by formal training in theoretical and technical topics. This system is based on the idea that it will enable students to come up with creative and appropriate solutions. However, this teaching method will might have hidden problems that in some cases can hinder the progress of architecture students and cause their full potential to not be identified and exploited. Ateliers (workshops) in architecture schools are the main teaching tools in which students are exposed to solving a bunch of design problems. Because burnout causes the learning process to decline, its reduction is of interest to many academic settings. Burnout is one of the problems of the educational system in all levels of education, which causes wastage of manpower and expenses and can have a devastating effect on personal and academic life. In addition, new and various educational methods, including gamification, have been reviewed and improved and used over the years and for various purposes, educational games (serious games) that are not just entertainment and necessarily in order to achieve educational goals and values and to design skills. Games are fun ways to learn and provide a safe and secure environment in a simulated environment for learners to make decisions and even make mistakes without fear of real-world consequences. Games can confront the player with a variety of challenges that conform to the latest proven principles of learning effectiveness. Learning through educational games is unconscious, indirect and effective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of architecturr design education at the undergraduate level, on reducing the rate of student academic burnout and thus improving the learning process of design, as the main course in architecture. This method aims to maximize students' capacity to acquire information and skills; The integration of their creative and technical competencies has been done in order to improve the effectiveness of architectural education and increase the quality of work of future architects. This study was conducted experimentally with a pretest-posttest design with a control group and an intervention group. The statistical population of this study was the students of Parand Branch Azad University, who were randomly selected to participate in this research and were divided into two groups of intervention and control, with equal numbers. MBI-GS (S) standard burnout questionnaire was used to collect data and SPSS.22 software was used for statistical analysis of data. The games were designed in accordance with the chapter and in order to achieve the objectives of the research and were performed in the studio of the intervention group. Student feedback was recorded at each levels of the games and at the end of the semester, very interesting results in terms of student design quality, increased motivation and interest in them; As well as the promotion of design learning was achieved. Statistical results show that there is a big difference between the three conceptual sections of academic burnout including exhaustion (feeling tired because of study requirements), cynicism (having a pessimistic and apathetic attitude towards homework) and professional efficacy (feeling incompetent as a student); There is an intervention and control group among the students, after completing the training sessions and holding a post-test. Therefore, the study of academic burnout and coping strategies to reduce it, in order to achieve educational goals and improve the design learning process was the criterion of this study and in contrast to other previous studies that examined the result of gamification in the product of architecture and design. Or studied the purely psychological effects of burnout; Considering the concepts of gamification education and academic burnout, the design learning process was examined and by considering its elements, the method of gamification education of architectural design was tested in line with reducing students' academic burnout. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that gamification education in architectural design has been effective in reducing academic burnout, increasing interest and motivation, as well as the level of student participation in practical activities of the studio. Therefore, it is recommended to use this new educational method in order to reduce academic burnout and improve the learning of architectural design.