در طراحی معماری و کالبدی بسیاری از مدارس و فضاهای آموزشی کشور، کمتر به جنبه های روانشناختی دانش آموزان توجه ویژه شده است. حال آنکه این فضاها بیشترین سطح ارتباط را با کودکان و نوجوانان دارند. برطبق دیدگاه صاحبنظران، محیط آموزشی مدرسه باید به گونه ای که یادگیری در آن آسان و خوشایند باشد، طراحی گردد. نیاز روزافزون گسترش فضاهای آموزشی همگام با افزایش جمعیت دانش آموزی و ضعف فضاهای باز و محیط سبز مدارس، یکی از مشکلات اساسی جامعه امروزی کشور است. در این میان فضای سبز این محیط ها بسیار مورد توجه باید قرار گیرند. در این تحقیق هدف بررسی ضرورت وجود طراحی مطلوب فضاهای باز آموزشی در کلیه مقاطع تحصیلی است چراکه ایجاد رغبت و حس علاقه مندی به محیط آموزشی و تعامل آن با فضاهای سبز و فضای باز حیاط، از عوامل مؤثر در برداشت دانش آموزان از محیط مدرسه و همچنین پیشرفت تحصیلی آنها می باشد. روش تحقیق استفاده شده در این پژوهش کیفی، از نوع توصیفی (پس رویدادی علی– مقایسه ای) می باشد. جامعه آماری مشتمل بر دبیرستان های دخترانه شهر اصفهان (اعم از مطلوب یا نامطلوب) بوده اند. به منظور اجرای طرح پژوهشی، از میان نواحی پنجگانه آموزش و پرورش شهر اصفهان، 4 ناحیه به تصادف انتخاب گردید. نتایج نشان می دهد که میانگین نمرات نحوه طراحی فضاهای باز حیاط و محیط سبز مدرسه از دیدگاه دانش آموزان دو گروه مدارس، تفاوت معناداری موجود است. بدین صورت که دانش آموزان مدارس مطلوب به لحاظ استفاده از فضاهای باز متناسب با ویژگی های روانشناختی دانش آموزان، نگرش مثبتی به مدرسه و محیط آموزشی داشتند که این امر مستلزم طراحی مناسب و بکارگیری اصول معماری و روانشناسی محیطی است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Effect of Desirable Design of Open Spaces and Green Environment within Schools with the Purpose of Improving Students' perception and Refining the Quality of the Environment(Case study: Isfahan female high schools)
In the architectural and physical design of many schools and other educational spaces within the country, the psychological aspects of students and space users is highly neglected. However, these spaces and environments have the highest level of contact with children and teenagers, thus bearing long-term psychological and emotional effects on them.
Statement of the problem:
According to experts of the field, the school's educational environment should be designed so as to make learning easy and enjoyable. The ever-growing need to expand educational spaces along with the increased student population and the weakness of open spaces and lack of suitable green environment in schools is one of the main problems of today's society. In the meantime, the design of green space in these environments and the manner of organizing the elements and integrating the occupied empty spaces with the desired capacity in the school space, both the interiors and exteriors such as courtyards, should be more flexible so that it can yield positive results in the process teaching. The arrangement of the elements together can create different-looking courtyards with various capabilities for relaxation and rest, exercise and the exploitation of green space, just as children and teenagers want a plethora of green spaces with different functions in school. Establishing a close and direct connection with the environment and outdoor nature introduces the school as a manifestation of the student's second home, and at the same time, when a space is in direct and close contact with such courtyard, It is possible to use both spaces simultaneously for both functions of learning or leisure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the need for desirable design of open spaces and outdoor educational environment at all educational levels, as shaping inclination and sense of interest towards the educational environment and the subsequent interaction with green spaces and roaming space of the yard are highly contributing factors in the desirable attitude of students towards their learning environment and their resulting educational progress. The desirability of such spaces is also very effective in reducing the stress of the teaching staff and educators, thus forming constructive steps in the process of education and training.
The study is a qualitative research which employs descriptive (retrospective causal-comparative). The statistical population of this research includes female high schools in Isfahan. According to the standards offered by the General Directorate of School Renovation of Isfahan Province, the schools of the four educational districts were divided into two groups of desirable and undesirable. In this research, simple random sampling method was used to selecting subjects. hence, 208 students from both school types (desirable and undesirable) were examined. Then, from the list of schools, four high schools (one school from each district) were randomly selected. Two classrooms were subsequently randomly selected from each school. From each class, all students responded to the questionnaire items. In addition, students from both groups of desirable and undesirable schools were homogenized and compared in terms of intelligence quotient, education level of parents, economic and social status of the family and lack of inflicting disorders. This self-report inventory consists of 32 Likert-scale items and is designed to examine attitudes of students toward educational spaces and the perception of the open environment and green space and. In developing this questionnaire, a prototype questionnaire (preliminary design of the design scale) was used. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this inventory was estimated to be higher than 0.7 and the reliability of the data was thus confirmed.
Findings and Conclusions:
The results show that there is a significant difference between average scores of the design the open spaces of the yard and the green environment of the school from the point of view of students of the two groups of schools. As such, the students studying at desired schools had a positive attitude towards the school and the educational environment in terms of exploiting the open spaces in accordance with the psychological characteristics of the students. The learning process in interaction with the open space, owing to the formation of gathering spaces, provides the possibility of group work practice and higher student participation. In other words, this collective learning and the relationship between the internal body and the external space has a positive effect on students' intellectual activity. Also in consolidating the sense of place, this study explores concepts of socialization and interpersonal interactions of students, learning and attractiveness of learning and promoting indirect education in the interaction between open and closed spaces (as well as the connecting semi-open spaces), softening the environment and appropriate landscaping and positive psychological effects of students and creating cooling and seating space to use the outdoor environment, controlling the reflection of disturbing lights and sheltering rain or other climatic conditions in certain environments, strengthening students' sensory and visual communication with the environment and educational-oriented communication in the open environment and providing space for relation, rest, interpersonal interactions, observing others and creating creativity through research strategies and achievements, an issue which requires appropriate design and careful application of the principles of architecture and environmental psychology.