گرچه امروزه مدلسازی اطلاعات ساختمان و آموزش آن از موضوعات مهم و رو به رشدی در عناوین پژوهشهای اخیر در جهان به شمار میرود، اما این جریان نوین بخصوص آموزش آن درکشور ایران نادیده گرفته شده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف پیشنهاد چارچوب مفهومی جهت شناخت بکارگیری سیستم مدلسازی اطلاعات ساختمان درآموزش معماری ایران انجام یافته است. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی بوده و رویکردی آمیخته؛ شامل نمونه موردی ثانویه، پیمایش و گروه کانونی دارد. انتخاب جامعة آماری به روش هدفمند بوده و حجم نمونه تعداد 200 نفر دانشآموختة معماری است. خطای اندازه گیری 05/0 و سطح اطمینان 95 درصد، بوده است. پرسشنامهها بصورت آنلاین پخش و با استفاده از نرمافزار آماری (اس.پی.اس.اس) تحلیل شدهاند. روایی پرسشنامهها ارزیابی و پایایی متغیرها از طریق آزمون آلفای کرونباخ با ضریب 876/0محاسبه و تایید شده است. ابتدا با استفاده از نمونههای موردی چارچوب نظری پژوهش ترسیم وسپس نظرات مشارکت کنندگان اخذ و تحلیل گردیده و در انتها چارچوب نهایی توسط گروه کانونی از اساتید و خبرگان اعتبار سنجی گشته است. سطح و اهداف دوره با توجه به نتایج آزمون کای اسکوئر چنین بدست آمد که سیستم مدلسازی اطلاعات ساختمان میتواند در مقاطع مختلف و به همراه سایر کلاسهای آموزشی بکار رود. همچنین از آزمونهای t یک نمونهای و رتبهبندی فریدمن جهت انتخاب محتوا و اهمیت دورهها استفاده شده که بیشترین میزان اهمیت کاربرد سیستم مدلسازی اطلاعات ساختمان در مدیریت پروژه، مباحث پایداری و کارگاه طراحی معماری و کمترین میزان اهمیت کاربرد آن در حوزة مفاهیم و تصورات ذهنی بدست آمده است. براساس یافتهها، سه حوزة نرم افزار و مدلسازی؛ مفاهیم و تئوری؛ و مدیریت اطلاعات؛ در چارچوب آموزشی سیستم مدلسازی اطلاعات ساختمان موثر شناخته شده و به عنوان نمونه برنامه درسی دورة کارشناسی معماری مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است و الگوی آموزشی نهایی به صورت تلفیقی در مقاطع مختلف تحصیلی پیشنهاد شده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Recognition and Feasibility Study of Implementing Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Architectural Education in Iran
The Building Information Modeling (BIM) system is one of the most important breakthroughs in the construction industry of the current era, and has the potential to transform traditional architectural education into a more productive model. The construction industry is considered to be one of the largest industries in the world, playing a major role in the development of countries around the globe. In fact, the impact of this industry is such that its recession can cause a recession in the whole economy of any country, while its prosperity can pave the way for prosperity of the whole economy of the country. Today, with the development of science and technology, the construction industry is facing new avenues, bringing about major changes therein, one of which is the BIM system. Consequently, with the development of technology in this field, higher education, which always seeks to keep pace with the industry, has confronted the challenge of accepting modern technologies and thus shapes more effective educational strategies. Although Building Information Modeling and its training courses are among the most important and sought-after subjects in recent research literature in the world by leading countries, this new modeling, and especially its training, has been widely neglected in Iran. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual framework for getting familiarized with the exploitation of building information modeling system in teaching Iranian architecture. In terms of purpose, this study is an applied research which employs a mixed approach including secondary case study, survey and focus group. The selection of the statistical population was undertaken purposefully, as each component of this statistical population was selected based on its relative knowledge of the building information modeling system and the sample is consisted of 200 architectural graduates. The measurement error was set at 0.05 and the level of reliability was 95%. The questionnaires were distributed online and analyzed using SPSS. The validity of the questionnaires was assessed and the reliability of the variables was calculated and confirmed by Cronbach's alpha test with a coefficient of 0.876. First, the theoretical framework of the research was devised using previous case studies and then the opinions of participants were obtained and analyzed. Finally, the final framework was validated by a focal group of professors and experts. According to the results of the Chi-Square test, the level and objectives of the course were evaluated to be such that the BIM system could be used at different educational levels and along with other training classes. Friedman test and one-sample t-tests and were also used to select the content and measure importance of the courses, in which the highest significance of the application of building information modeling was witnessed in project management, sustainability issues and architectural Studio, while the lowest significance of its application was obtained in the field of concepts and mental imagination. Based on the findings, three areas of software and modeling, concepts and theory, and information management recognized as effective in the educational framework of BIM, and were thus recommended for consideration in the curriculum of the undergraduate course in architecture. The final educational model is proposed in combination at different educational levels. As such, the proposed framework for teaching building information modeling system is divided into three courses of elementary, intermediate and advanced, in which the students first learn the individual skills in modeling and analysis in the bachelor's program of architecture, then they learn the concepts and principles of building information modeling in the master's program course. They can finally take part in advanced training courses related to the building industry and profession based on teaching teamwork and interdisciplinary collaboration and integration in real projects.
The results indicate that the educational objectives of the BIM system should incorporate the principles of cooperation and integration, as the ultimate goal of implementing a building information modeling system is generating integrated knowledge. The building information modeling system can be taught as an independent course or in combination with other courses such as architectural design Studios. Therefore, recognizing the content of the course and the different fields of technology, policy and processes, measuring the capabilities assigned to learners in the field of technology, which is associated with gaining elementary knowledge in software, hardware, shared platforms, and technological equipment and expertise in modeling, project delivery and presentation techniques, requires an efficient and practical method, for which using BIM system and testing concepts and practical principles is recommended. On the other hand, regarding the subjects in the field of building information modeling processes, i.e. management skills, which reveals the degree of familiarity with the principles and rules for decision-making, and also measures and evaluates the scope of policies, i.e. the legal capabilities, in which the theoretical and standard skills of learners are considered, and finally regarding the theoretical and analytical nature of these fields, oral presentation, conference and interview methods are recommended. In the intermediate courses, this can lead to joint projects of architecture, structures, and facilities for the application of cooperation, and in advanced courses, it can lead to the presence and cooperation of learners in real projects and integration. Therefore, given the opportunities and benefits that building information modeling offers to the field of architecture and construction education, there is an urgent need for education, promotion, legislation and creating proper infrastructure in the field of building information modeling and its purposeful, optimal and principled use of such up-to-date construction system with the aim of improving the quality and executive level of the construction industry in Iran.