نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای معماری اسلامی، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

رسانه‌ها به یکی از بخش‌های جدایی‌ناپذیر زندگی انسان ‌در عصر تکنولوژی تبدیل‌شده‌اند. از سویی معماری نیز به‌عنوان عاملی رسانه‌ای معرفی می‌شود که در سطوح مختلف قابل‌تحلیل است؛ اما با این تفاسیر هنوز الگویی روشن از تعاملات میان معماری و رسانه تبیین نشده است. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی شاخص‌های مؤثر بر ماهیت رسانه بودن معماری و اولویت‌بندی آن‌ها و نهایتاً ارائه مدلی از عوامل اثرگذار بر کیفیت رسانه‌ای معماری در دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز، به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤالات است که ابتدا شاخص‌های مؤثر بر ارتقای کیفیت رسانه‌ای معماری کدام‌اند و سپس چگونه می‌توان در نمونه استفاده مجدد تطبیقی مدلی از این شاخص‌ها را تدوین کرد. پژوهش حاضر ازنظر هدف بنیادی-تجربی، و ازنظر ماهیت و روش توصیفی-پیمایشی در مطالعه موردی است. پس از مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای، 12 نفر از اعضای هیئت‌علمی دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز به‌عنوان متخصصین پانل دلفی انتخاب شدند و ایده‌پردازی شاخص‌ها با مصاحبه‌های نیمه ساختاریافته انجام شد. سپس با ادغام شاخص‌های مبانی نظری و شاخص‌های حاصل از تحلیل محتوای مصاحبه‌ها، 34 شاخص مؤثر بر ارتقای کیفیت رسانه‌ای معماری در چهار دسته استخراج گردید. پس از تائید روایی و پایایی ابزار پژوهش، خبرگان در پرسشنامه‌های بسته و طیف 5 درجه‌ای لیکرت به امتیازدهی شاخص‌ها پرداختند و داده‌ها با تکنیک تاپسیس مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که شاخص‌های «اشاره‌کننده به هنر ساخت و تکنولوژی زمان»، «بازتاب‌دهنده فرهنگ مردم جامعه» و «به وجود آورنده ادراکات حسی جدید» دارای بالاترین اولویت‌ها بودند و دسته «شاخص‌های مربوط به کاربردهای رسانه» نیز مؤثرترین دسته معرفی شد. معماری اگر نقش رسانه‌ای نداشته باشد دیگر معماری نیست. معماری به‌عنوان یک میانجی در ظرف رسانه‌ای خود انتقال‌دهنده ایده‌ها و پیام‌ها به آیندگان است و کیفیت رسانه‌ای آن باعث باز زایش‌های گوناگون فضایی در بسترهای ذهنی طیف‌های مخاطبان می‌شود.

تازه های تحقیق

- 34 شاخص مؤثر بر ارتقای کیفیت رسانه‌ای معماری در 4 دسته طبقه‌بندی شدند.

- شاخص اشاره‌کننده به هنر ساخت و تکنولوژی زمان و دسته شاخص‌های مربوط به کاربردهای رسانه، مؤثرترین عوامل رسانه‌ای انتخاب گردیدند.

- معماری به‌عنوان یک رسانه فیزیکی، انتقال‌دهنده مفاهیم و پیام‌ها است و کیفیت رسانه‌ای آن باعث درک‌ متفاوت کاربران از فضاها می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and prioritizing the factors affecting the enhancement of mediating quality in architecture (Case study: Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Pourahmad Ghalejough 1
  • Farzin Haghparast 2
  • Mohammad Taghi Pirbabaei 3

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Islamic Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: Media has always been a platform for activities relating to the human intellect, and it has become an integral part of human life in various forms and contexts by the supporting role of technology. On the other hand, many thinkers and theorists have introduced architecture as physical media that its perception and impacts can be analyzed at different theoretical levels. Despite these interpretations in which the buildings are recognized with their intrinsic mediating factors, a clear theoretical framework of such relationships in the interaction between architecture and media has not yet been defined. The questions that this research seeks to answer are, what indicators affect the procedure of becoming architecture as media and its mediating quality, and then, how can a model of these factors and categories be obtained in a case study, so these connections between architecture and media can be clearly explained? Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the effective factors on mediating quality of architecture and prioritize them, and finally, to present a model of architecture as media based on the case study of historic buildings of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University as an example of adaptive reuse in historic buildings.
Methods: This research is fundamental-experimental in terms of purpose, and descriptive-survey in the case study in terms of nature and method. After studies on the literature of the subject, 12 faculty members of the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University were selected as members of the Delphi panel of experts. All the panel members were among the recognized experts in specific fields of architecture. In the first round of Delphi, the conceptualization of indicators and brainstorming were done through semi-structured interviews with panel members in person and virtually. After analyzing the content of the interviews, by combining the factors obtained from the literature and the indicators resulting from the opinions of experts, 34 indicators effective in improving the mediating quality of architecture were extracted in four categories. In the second round of Delphi, after confirming the validity and reliability of the research tools with the approval of faculty members and measuring the reliability of Cronbach's alpha, experts scored the factors in close-ended questionnaires and 5-point Likert scale, and the data were analyzed using TOPSIS technique. Kendall's coefficient of concordance was used to assess the consensus among the experts, and the prioritized factors were also introduced along with the descriptive statistics components such as the average in tables and plots. Finally, by comparing the results of the TOPSIS technique with the results extracted from the descriptive statistics, the accuracy of the results and their validity were ensured.
Findings:The ratings and findings obtained from the average index were slightly different from the results extracted from the TOPSIS technique. The reason can be stated in the higher accuracy of this technique in prioritizing and presenting rankings and closeness indexes of each factor in the research. The factors “Indicator of the art of technology and crafting in time” with the closeness index of 0.610652, “Reflector of the culture of people in the society” with the closeness index of 0.579874, “Creator of new sensory perceptions” with the closeness index of 0.561471, “Being a benchmark in the city context” with the closeness index of 0.560705, and “Represents the evolution of history” with the closeness index of 0.558936 were among the highest priorities in the factors affecting the mediating quality in architecture. Also, the factors of "A communicator" with the closeness index of 0.436028 and "The presence of a power in creating the message" with the closeness index of 0.457395 were placed at the bottom of the priorities. By calculating the averages of closeness indexes in each category, the most effective categories in improving the mediating quality in architecture are "Factors relating to the application of media", "Factors relating to the impacts of media", "Factors relating to the message", and "Factors relating to the intrinsic characteristics of media", and were introduced with the mean averages of 0.544508, 0.503928, 0.495541 and 0.491413, respectively.
Conclusion:The final model of architecture as media and factors affecting the enhancement of mediating quality were presented as the conclusion of the research. Hence, if architecture is not considered as physical media and does not have a mediating role, it can no longer be called architecture, and will no longer differentiate its nature from a structure. Architecture always transmits its nature, ideas, thoughts, mindsets, approaches, history, time, and specifically its message to the future, and performs as a metamedia concept. Also, the body and audience of architecture change its media nature, and its mediating quality causes various spatial reproductions in the minds of the people and a wide range of users.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Media
  • Architecture
  • Adaptive reuse
  • Delphi method
  • TOPSIS Technique
  • Tabriz Islamic Art University
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