نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار،دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 دکترای معماری منظر، گروه منظر، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

معماری بومی روستایی در بستر طبیعت شکل می‌گیرد و پیوندی بین انسان و طبیعت بر اساس این معماری ایجاد می‌گردد که لازمه آن هنری کاربردی در خدمت نیاز انسان است. برای فهم این هنر رجوع به نمونه‌های موجود و شناخت و تحلیل آن‌ها بهترین مسیر است. هدف مقاله حاضر شناخت و تحلیل دلایل شکل‌گیری یکی از روستاهای منحصربفرد معماری ایرانی است. روستای لیوس علاوه بر این‌که حامل ‌الگوهای معماری بومی روستایی ایران است، ویژگی‌های کالبدی خاصی دارد که برآمده از محیط شکل‌گیری روستا -کوه‌پایه‌های جنوب غربی زاگرس- است. بر مبنای هدف شناخت معماری بومی در روستای لیوس سؤال، استقلال در ساخت‌وساز(بوم‌آورد بودن معماری روستای لیوس) و پیوند با محیط پیرامون چگونه باعث بروز عناصر معماری و ساختاری و فرم‌های جدید در این روستا شده است؟ شکل می‌گیرند. بنابراین روش میدانی و پیمایشی برای گردآوری اطلاعات و پس از آن تحلیل مطالعه موردی مبنای روش تحقیق قرار گرفت. روستای لیوس در 80 کیلومتری شمال شرق دزفول، در دامنه کوهی صخره‌ای قرار دارد. تحلیل کالبد روستا در دو مقیاس کلان شامل: معابر، جهت‌گیری خانه‌ها و بازشوها، معماری پلکانی؛ و خرد شامل: کیفیت ورود و ابعاد بازشوها، مصالح، پوشش‌ها، کنوسازی و عایق‌بندی بام، تابو (ظرف سفالی بزرگ برای ذخیره حبوبات)، انجام می‌شود. نتیجه این شناخت و تحلیل نشان می‌دهد که شکل خاص زندگی مردم لیوس(لزوم رعایت مسائل امنیتی، زندگی در حالتی بین یکجانشینی و کوچ و ایجاد واحدهای مستقل زیستی در قالب خانه) دلیل عدم وجود عناصر معماری زیرساختی زندگی اجتماعی(بازار، مسجد و مرکز محله‌ای از پیش فکر شده) است. این نوع زندگی، معماری ایجاد می‌کند که بر اساس آن می‌توان ادعا کرد خلاقیت در معماری بومی به معنی ساده‌ترین و دم‌دست‌ترین پاسخ به نیازهای اصیل و مبنایی انسان است.

چکیده تصویری

شناخت و تحلیل کالبدی معماری بومی روستای لیوس

تازه های تحقیق

- مؤلفه‌های تأثیرگذار بر معماری لیوس دورافتاده بودن و ناامنی، پوشش گیاهی منطقه، مصالح در دسترس و مکان‌یابی خاص روستا در جوار کوه لنگر هستند. 
- شناخت و تحلیل مسیل‌های عبور آب و نقش آن‌ها در شکل‌گیری واحدهای همسایگی، سازه‌های طاقی سنگ و گچی، انبارهای منحصربفرد ذخیره مواد غذایی و باغ‌های پیرامون روستا از شاخص‌ترین اقدامات در جهت فهم معماری روستای لیوس هستند.  
- خلاقیت در معماری روستایی در قالب یافتن بهترین، ساده‌ترین و دردسترس‌ترین راه‌کارها در پاسخ به نیازهای اولیه انسان نمود می‌یابد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Physical Analysis and Cognition of Vernacular Architecture in Leives Village

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Moazen 1
  • Shina Sad Berenji 2

1 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. in Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Objective and Background: Rural architecture is formed in the context of nature. A link between man and nature is created based on this architecture, which requires applied art to serve human needs. The best way to understand this art is to refer to the existing examples of its identification and analysis. Studying the construction technics of rural architecture is one of the most important ways to understand the vernacular architecture of any land. Leives is located 80 km northeast of Dezful. The village is at the hillside of Langar Mountain. The most important historical places in this village are GadamGah of Leives village and the tomb of Gusheh village (10km south of Leives).
Methods: The present research is of a qualitative type that uses the grounded theory method. The field survey method was used to collect data and documentation. This article is the subject of empirical research that uses multiple sources and evidence to study the architecture of Leives village in its natural context. The architecture of Leives village is a cohesive whole created by its architectural details and structural techniques. To understand this whole, based on its components, cognition, and analysis of the village is described in two macro and micro scales.
Findings: Leives village is divided into Ashiriha and Dinavarha neighborhoods. Leives village development process considering historical and constructional evolution includes 1. The initial core of the village formed around GadamGah and a monument named castle in Dinavarha neighborhood. 2. Dinavarha neighborhood (east of the village) 3. Ashiriha neighborhood (west of the village) 4. New buildings with vernacular materials. 5. New buildings with cement blocks and iron beams. For construction analysis of village streams, the seasonal water flow path in the village is investigated. Water can play both destructive or constructive roles –depending on human brilliance in the choice of location settlement. There are one surrounding stream and three inner minor streams in the village. These streams have some benefits: making two gardens in the south and southwest, using the stream as a route, and creating a natural borderline between Ashiriha and Dinavarha neighborhoods. The structural morphology of the village is described in a macro-scale, including the routes (The village Passages have numerous warps and varying widths throughout, indicating that the village’s fabric has gradually developed by natural growth), and the direction and orientation of the houses, which is the same as the direction of the mountain -northwest, southeast. Therefore, the openings are facing southwest for utilizing the maximum solar radiation to warm inside the house and provide interior lighting). The stepped architecture, micro-scale includes: entrance quality and openings sizes (hard climates (cold winters and direct sunlight in summers), the need to protect the interior from unexpected invasions of humans and insects, the lack of suitable materials for making doors and windows, and a ceiling beam are some of the reasons for the small size and the limited number of the doors, and windows). Used materials (stone and plaster), roofing technique (typically are arched), roof water isolation (usage of the free space between arch and roof as a wheat silo), tabo (large Cereal storage container which is going to be built with clay inside building simultaneously with the construction of the building) are also investigated.
Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasize the importance of choosing a suitable place to satisfy the living needs of villagers. Continuing to live in one place for centuries requires precise location choice in nature. In the village of Leives, the mountain direction and streams are the main factors in locating. Fields and gardens are at the south of the village, and the mountain protects the village like a strong barrier in the north. Being located next to the Langar Mountain brings security for the residents. Also, the farmers benefit from the good view of their cultivated lands. Living in this place requires its specific customs and behavior, and these customs also create their unique architecture. Self-sufficiency on a domestic scale, limited connections with other towns and villages, living between settlement and migration, nature dependency define the specific lifestyle of people in Leives. For this reason, there is no infrastructure designed for social life (such as the bazaar, mosque, and even designed neighborhood center). Finally, Leives architectural analysis can be described in this way: creativity in vernacular architecture is equivalent to the best, most simple, and most available answer to noble and basic human needs. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Vernacular architecture
  • creativity
  • Stream
  • Plaster and Stone Arch
  • self-sufficiency
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