نما یکی از عناصر تأثیرگذار بر کیفیت بصری یک بنا میباشد و شناخت اولیه هر فرد از بنا از این طریق صورت میگیرد. تا به حال ادراک معانی نماها بیشتر در حوزه شهرسازی مورد توجه قرار گرفته و معانی نماها در مقیاس معماری کمتر مورد پژوهش متخصصان عرصه معماری قرار گرفته است. لذا پژوهش حاضر به شناسایی مؤلفههای معنای نماهای آپارتمانهای مسکونی اردبیل از دیدگاه شهروندان پرداخته است. از همینرو در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است که به این پرسش پاسخ داده شود که مؤلفههای معنای نماهای آپارتمانهای مسکونی از دیدگاه شهروندان چیست؟ این پژوهش رویکردی ترکیبی دارد. بخش کیفی با استفاده از روش گراندد تئوری و بخش کمی با استفاده از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری انجام گرفته است. ابزار جمعآوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی مصاحبههای عمیق و نیمهساختاریافته با شهروندان اردبیل بوده است و در بخش کمی، پرسشنامه محققساخت بوده که روایی و پایایی آن بررسی شده است. برای تحلیل دادهها از نرمافزار مکسکیودا و روش مقایسه مداوم در طی سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی استفاده شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها نشان داد که مؤلفههای تأثیرگذار بر معنای نما، شامل نه مؤلفه: عوامل فرهنگی اجتماعی، سبک زندگی، عوامل اقتصادی، عوامل محیطی، قوانین شهری، کیفیت بصری، سابقه ذهنی، رسانهها، وضعیت اجرا میباشد.
تازه های تحقیق
- مؤلفههای تأثیرگذار بر معنای نما، شامل: عوامل فرهنگی اجتماعی، اقتصادی، محیطی، سبک زندگی، قوانین شهری، کیفیت بصری، سابقه ذهنی، رسانهها، وضعیت اجرا میباشد.
- با شناسایی مؤلفههای مؤثر بر معنای نما، میتوان ویژگی کالبدی و سایر عوامل زمینهای تأثیرگذار را که منجر به کیفیت مطلوب بصری میشود، را شناسایی نموده و از آنها در طراحی نما بهره جست.
- شناخت این مؤلفهها منجر به آگاهی معماران از دریافتهای ذهنی مردم در خصوص نماها شده و به دریافتهای شخصی خود اکتفا نخواهند کرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identification of the semantic components of the facades of residential buildings from the viewpoint of citizens (Case study: Ardabil city)
Background and Objectives: Facades can significantly affect the visual quality of buildings. The initial impression that a building leaves on a viewer occurs via its facade. A building’s facade can be the most important element in its design. Considering that the facade of a building is the first visual component of that building and the first component that connects the building to the surrounding environment, it plays a significant role in the viewer’s evaluation. Perception of the meaning of facades has been mainly explored in the field of urban planning but architectural experts have paid little attention to this subject from the viewpoint of architecture. From among the different types of buildings, residential ones were selected for this study since in designing residential environments, paying attention to different components and their meaning is more important than their function. Nowadays, residential land uses constitute a large portion of urban land uses. Almost all members of a society are in direct contact with them and glance at different facades on a daily basis. Therefore, this study attempted to identify the components of the meaning of residential apartments in Ardabil from the perspective of the city’s citizens. The main question of this study was as follows: What are the semantic components of the facades of residential apartments from the viewpoint of citizens?
Methods: This research had a mixed approach. The qualitative section was conducted using the grounded theory while the quantitative section was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). In the qualitative part, the required data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with citizens of Ardabil City. Since the researcher’s perceptive understanding of the subject and the possibility of conducting in-depth interviews are major factors in any qualitative study, the main criterion for selecting the sample was the possibility of the author’s continuous presence in the area and interviewing the citizens. A total number of 25 residential apartments in Ardabil City were selected as the sample in this case study. The southern and southwestern sections of Ardabil have a relatively new urban fabric. Most apartments in these sections have 3 to 6 stories. In terms of socio-cultural and economic level, these areas have a high, medium, medium-to-low and medium-to-high status. Therefore, they were a suitable case for in-depth study and would provide generalizable results. For this reason, the geographical expanse consisting of the south and southwest of Ardabil City was selected as the study area. MAXQDA software and constant comparisons during the three stages of open, axial and selective coding were used for analysis of the collected data. After the interviews were transcribed, the collected data were scrutinized via the coding method and were then classified via open, axial and selective coding. Each interview was perused several times and the basic concepts were extracted via content analysis. In the second stage of the coding, one of the categories was selected as the core concept which was then studied as the pivotal phenomenon in the explained process. The relationships of the other categories with the core concept were then determined and expressed in the form of a paradigm model. Selective coding was the last stage of the coding procedure in which the core category was selected and its link to other categories was specified. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire was designed by the author and its validity and reliability were examined. SEM and SmartPLS software were used in this section of the research. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items designed in a structured manner based on the Likert 5-point scale and developed according to the conceptual model of the research. Four items directly inquired about the meaning of facades. Using targeted cluster sampling, the questionnaires were distributed among individuals who were familiar with the sample. Analysis of the collected data via SEM in SmartPLS confirmed the significance of the relationships and the identified components.
Findings: The components and details of building facades have a meaningful wholeness. Identifying the meanings of facades helps determine their constituent factors. In this study, the context factors, the intervening factors and in some cases both have affected the meaning of the selected facades. The analysis showed that nine components affect the meaning of building facades: socio-cultural factors, lifestyle, economic factors, environmental factors, urban laws, visual quality, mental history, media and construction quality.
Conclusion: The results showed that different factors affect how participant describe the appearance of their residential apartments. The participants used terms such as regular, expensive, identity, etc. when describing the appearance of residential apartments. The meanings of facades are affected by various factors. These meanings are formed in the context of structural factors (facade components, physical characteristics, stylistic features and apartment properties), context factors and intervening factors. Based on the obtained results, certain solutions have been proposed to improve the semantic status of the facades of residential apartments. Determining the components affecting the facade meaning, one can identify the physical properties and other influential underlying factors that would lead to desired visual quality, thereby helping the patterns and designs of the facade. Understanding these components helps architects comprehend people's mental perceptions of the facade, while not preoccupying with their own personal perceptions.