نما یکی از عناصر تأثیرگذار بر کیفیت بصری یک بنا میباشد و شناخت اولیه هر فرد از بنا از این طریق صورت میگیرد. تابحال ادراک معانی نماها بیشتر در حوزه شهرسازی مورد توجه قرار گرفته و معانی نماها در مقیاس معماری کمتر مورد پژوهش متخصصان عرصه معماری قرار گرفته است. لذا پژوهش حاضر به شناسایی مؤلفههای معنای نماهای آپارتمانهای مسکونی اردبیل از دیدگاه شهروندان پرداخته است. از همینرو در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است که به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که مؤلفههای معنای نماهای آپارتمانهای مسکونی از دیدگاه شهروندان چیست؟ این پژوهش دارای رویکردی ترکیبی بوده است. بخش کیفی با استفاده از روش گراندد تئوری و بخش کمی با استفاده از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری انجام گرفته است. ابزار جمعآوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی مصاحبههای عمیق و نیمهساختاریافته با شهروندان اردبیل بوده است و در بخش کمی، پرسشنامه محققساخت بوده که روایی و پایایی آن بررسی شده است. برای تحلیل دادهها از نرمافزار مکسکیودا و روش مقایسه مداوم در طی سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی استفاده شده است. تجزیه و تحلیل دادهها نشان داد که مؤلفههای تأثیرگذار بر معنای نما، شامل نه مؤلفه: عوامل فرهنگی اجتماعی، سبک زندگی، عوامل اقتصادی، عوامل محیطی، قوانین شهری، کیفیت بصری، سابقه ذهنی، رسانهها، وضعیت اجرا میباشد.
تازه های تحقیق
- مؤلفههای تأثیرگذار بر معنای نما، شامل: عوامل فرهنگی اجتماعی، اقتصادی، محیطی، سبک زندگی، قوانین شهری، کیفیت بصری، سابقه ذهنی، رسانهها، وضعیت اجرا میباشد.
- شناخت این مؤلفهها منجر به آگاهی معماران از دریافتهای ذهنی مردم در خصوص نماها شده و به دریافتهای شخصی خود اکتفا نخواهند کرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identification of facade semantic components of residential buildings from the perspective of the citizens (Case study: Ardabil city)
Background and Objectives: Facades can significantly affect the visual quality of buildings. The initial impression that a building has on a viewer occurs via its facade. A building facade can be the most important element of its design. Considering that the facade of a building is the first visual component of that building and the first component that connects the building to the surrounding environment, it plays a significant role in the viewer’s evaluation. Perception of the meaning of facades has been mainly explored in urban planning, but architectural experts have paid little attention to this subject from the architectural point of view. Residential buildings were selected among the different types of buildings since paying attention to different components, and their meaning is more important than the function in designing residential environments. Nowadays, residential land uses constitute a large portion of urban land uses. Almost all members of a society are in direct contact with them and look at different facades on a daily basis. Therefore, this study attempted to identify the components of the meaning of residential apartments in Ardabil from the perspective of the citizens. The main question of this study is as follows: What are the semantic components of the facades in residential apartments from the perspective of the citizens?
Methods: This research had a mixed-method approach. The qualitative section was conducted using the grounded theory, while the quantitative section was performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). In the qualitative part, the required data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with citizens of Ardabil City. Since the researcher’s deep understanding of the subject and the possibility of conducting in-depth interviews are major factors in any qualitative study, the main criterion for selecting the sample was the possibility of the author’s continuous presence in the area and interviewing the citizens. A total number of 25 residential apartments in Ardabil City were selected as the sample in this study. The southern and southwestern sections of Ardabil have a relatively new urban fabric. Most apartments in these sections have 3 to 6 stories. In terms of socio-cultural and economic status, these areas have a high, medium, medium-to-low, and medium-to-high status. Therefore, they were suitable for in-depth study and would provide generalizable results. For this reason, the geographical expanse consisting of the south and southwest of Ardabil City was selected as the study area. MAXQDA software and constant comparisons during the three stages of open, axial, and selective coding were used to analyze the collected data. After the interviews were transcribed, the collected data were scrutinized via the coding method and classified via open, axial, and selective coding. Each interview was perused several times, and the basic concepts were extracted via content analysis. In the second coding stage, one of the categories was selected as the core concept, which was then studied as the pivotal phenomenon in the explained process. The relationships of the other categories with the core concept were then determined and expressed in the form of a paradigm model. Selective coding was the last stage of the coding procedure in which the core category was selected, and its links to other categories were identified. The author designed a questionnaire in the quantitative section, and its validity and reliability were examined. SEM and SmartPLS software were used in this section of the research. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items designed in a structured manner based on the Likert 5-point scale and developed according to the conceptual model of the research. Four items directly inquired about the meaning of facades. Using targeted cluster sampling, the authors distributed the questionnaires among individuals who were familiar with the samples. Analysis of the collected data via SEM in SmartPLS confirmed the significance of the relationships and the identified components.
Findings: The components and details of building facades have meaningful integrity. Identifying the meanings of facades helps determine their constituent factors. In this study, the context and intervening factors, in some cases, have affected the meaning of the selected facades. The analysis showed that nine components affect the meaning of building facades: socio-cultural factors, lifestyle, economic factors, environmental factors, urban laws, visual quality, mental history, media, and construction quality.
Conclusion: The results showed that different factors affect how participants describe their residential apartment appearance. The participants used terms such as regular, expensive, identity, etc., when describing the appearance of residential apartments. The meanings of facades are affected by various factors. These meanings are formed in the context of structural factors (facade components, physical characteristics, stylistic features, and apartment properties), context factors, and intervening factors. Based on the achieved results, certain solutions have been proposed to improve the semantic status of the facades of residential apartments. By determining the components affecting the facade meaning, one can identify the physical properties and other influential underlying factors that would lead to desired visual quality, thereby helping the patterns and designs of the facade. Understanding these components helps architects comprehend people’s mental perceptions of the façade, while not preoccupying with their personal perceptions.
این مقاله برگرفته از رساله دکتری نویسنده نخست با عنوان «تبیین مدلی جهت ارزیابی معنای نماهای آپارتمانهای مسکونی از دیدگاه ساکنان و شهروندان (مطالعه موردی: آپارتمانهای شهر اردبیل)»، میباشد که به راهنمایی نویسنده دوم و سوم و مشاوره نویسنده چهارم در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد همدان انجام گرفته است.
This article is derived from the first author`s doctorsl thesis entitled “Explanation of a Model of Meaning for Evaluating of Residential Apartments from the Residents and Citizens Persperctive (case study: Apartments in Ardabil city)”, supervised by the second and third authors and advised by the fourth, at Islamic Azad University Hamedan Branch.