نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی معماری اسلامی، گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه بین المللی امام رضا، مشهد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

ارزش­‌های فرهنگی متاثر از رفتار، نگرش و باورهای افراد در فرهنگ‌های جاری میان افراد، تنظیم حریم مطلوب افراد را در ارتباط دو سویه انسان-محیط، مهم‌­ترین عنصر معرف حریم ارتباطات تفسیر می­‌کند. انسان‌ها، در این تعامل، ترجیحات و تعاریف متفاوتی از حریم، ارتباط خود را با دیگران و دیگر فضاها دارند. هدف این مقاله، دریافت آرایش کالبدی مطلوب حریم متناسب با  فرهنگ اسلامی جاری و موجود میان افراد در مسکن معاصر است. جامعه آماری براساس فرمول کوکران محاسبه شد که تعداد 78 معمار اسلامی را شامل می‌شود. در مرحله اول، جهت شناخت شاخصه‌های ارتباطی انسان- محیط و میزان معناداری ارتباط میان انسان و اجزای خانه، از ابزار پرسشنامه و نرم‌افزار SPSS و آزمون ناپارامتریک کروسکال والیس، استفاده شد. سپس برای سنجش میزان اثرگذاری الگوی پایه چیدمان حریم به دست آمده از آرا صاحب­نظران معماری اسلامی، سه خانه برگزیده معاصر ایران انتخاب و در نرم‌افزارهای Depth Map و  A-Graph، به ترتیب حریم دیداری و حریم ارتباط فضاها(حرکتی)، بررسی شد. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که پذیرایی با اثرپذیری و اثرگذاری کم به نسبت سایر فضاها، نقش عنصر میانه در برقراری ارتباط(حرکت) و ایجاد حریم در خانه را دارد. همچنین در الگوی پایه از چیدمان حریم در خانه براساس آرا نظر معماران اسلامی، دو هسته درون(فضای خصوصی) و بیرون(فضای عمومی) و پذیرایی به عنوان هسته رابط فضاها هستند که سایر عملکردها با تعیین فاصله(عمق) و نوع هم‌جواری(هم­پیوندی) با انواع عناصر کالبدی(طبقه، دیوار، پرده...) با هسته رابط در الگوی معاصر جایگذاری می­شوند. بنابراین شناخت چیدمان فضایی مطلوب در فرهنگ اسلامی مورد پذیرش افراد در موقعیت­های زیستی متفاوت، این امکان را برای معماران ایجاد می‌نماید تا در تعیین ارزش حریم هر جز خانه، چیدمان فضایی مطلوب حریم افراد در خانه معاصر ایرانی را پینشهاد نمایند.

چکیده تصویری

خوانش انواع حرکت در مسکن بر مبنای فرهنگ حریم معاصر (نمونه موردی: سه خانه برگزیده معماری معاصر ایران)

تازه های تحقیق

- بیان ارتباط بین مؤلفه های موثر در انواع تعاملات انسان-محیط در هر جز عملکردی مسکن و چیدمان فضایی مسکن.
- دریافت آرایش کالبدی مطلوب حریم متناسب با  فرهنگ اسلامی جاری و موجود میان افراد در مسکن معاصر.
- ارائه الگوی پایه از چیدمان حریم در خانه براساس آرا نظر معماران اسلامی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Reading the Motion Types in Residential Buildings Based on the Contemporary Notion of Privacy (Case Study: Three Selected Houses of Iranian Contemporary Architecture)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Baradaran Heravi 1
  • Mahdi Hamze Nejad 2

1 Master of Islamic Architectural Engineering, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Imam Reza International University, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: In the contemporary era, cultural values influenced by individuals' behavior, attitudes, and beliefs can offer the definition of desired privacy in the human-environment relationship. The most important element of privacy can be interpreted based on the manner and form of the communication. In this interaction, human beings define different preferences and definitions of privacy in relation to others and other spaces. According to these interactions included in Islamic and social interactions, the experiences in the house environment lead to semantic (mental) and physical (objective) movement. In relations that are shaped out of semantic (mental) movement within the house, communication with nature, guests, neighbors, God, spouses, and family is remarkable. The interactions in the house environment can be controlled with motion, visual, auditory, and olfactory senses and help to study the movement in the physical (objective) dimension. The importance of each factor and communication tool in each housing component allows designers and architects to identify the notion of desirable communication privacy in the contemporary era to design the spatial arrangement appropriate to residents' privacy. The aim is to obtain the desired physical arrangement for creating privacy in accordance with the current Islamic culture in contemporary housing and answer the following questions:

What is the relationship between the effective components of human-environment interactions in each functional housing component and the housing spatial arrangement?
By recognizing the different effects of communication components representing the individuals' privacy in each housing component, what environmental solution can be provided for the effective design of the desired spatial layout of the privacy?
According to the basic pattern of privacy layout obtained from the Islamic architecture experts' opinions, how has privacy been arranged in contemporary houses?

Methods: To identify the characteristics of human-environment relations, (1) the content of interactions (types of communication that humans have in housing components), (2) the motion, visual, auditory, and olfactory controlling types, and (3) the degree of optimal communication for each component with other functional components of the house has been completed in two parts. A Field research method with a researcher-made questionnaire was completed. The statistical sample size based on Cochran's formula was 78 Islamic architects, and data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance of the difference between the humans and house components was determined by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. The mean relationship and size of human movement in housing components were compared to identify optimal privacy indicators for spatial arrangement.
Findings: According to statistical data, the living room with low effect can be considered an intermediary element in communication (movement) and creating privacy in the house. Recognizing the best spatial arrangement accepted by people in different biological situations in Islamic culture helps architects determine the value of privacy in the spatial arrangement of contemporary Iranian housing. Therefore, three contemporary Iranian houses with two types of movements that lead to the structural and psychological layout were selected to investigate the effectiveness of the privacy layout obtained from the opinions of Islamic architecture experts. In these spaces, (1) the visual privacy with the visual graph in Depth map software and the (2) space communication (movement) privacy with the explanatory graph in A-Graph software were fully scrutinized. In the basic model of spatial arrangement based on Islamic architecture experts' opinions, the inner core (private space), the outer core (public space), and the living space, as the interface, shape the house. Other space functions are located in relation to the interface space by determining the distance (depth) and the type of proximity (interconnection) with various physical elements (floor, wall, curtain) in the contemporary model.
Conclusion: Designing the space layout based on Islamic documents necessitates observing four types of visual, motor, auditory and olfactory privacy in indoor and outdoor spaces. In creating the layout of space, the living room and bedrooms were among the influential spaces. In recognizing the communication desirability in housing components, the yard, the living room, and kitchen (extroverted space)  were identified as spaces with a high level of communication. The washing closets and master bedroom (introverted space) had the lowest preference for human-environment communication. Three levels of privacy were identified in modern and Islamic houses.  The optimal physical planning of the privacy layout based on the communication desirability in every housing component can offer a better arrangement of housing spaces. In the basic model of space layout based on Islamic architects' opinion, the two inner core (private space) and outer core (public space) and the living room as the interface between these spaces shape the housing layout. In the contemporary model, the living room is the main core, and other spaces are identified by the distance (depth) and the type of proximity (joint) to other physical elements (floor, wall, curtain ...). The privacy layout of privacy from high to low was presented based on the current communication and controlling levels in the contemporary house and ultimately led to the proper location of spaces in today's housing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Motion-Inertia in House
  • space arrangement
  • Notion of Privacy
  • Human-Environment Relation
  • Housing components
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