حس مکان از موضوعاتی است که در سالهای اخیر با پشتسر نهادن پیشفرضهای ساختگرایی، در پارادایم پساساختارگرایی به آن پرداخته شده و در راستای شناخت خصوصیات پدیداری این حس، تحقیقاتی صورت پذیرفته است. اما نظر به اهمیت فهم مکان، شناخت و تدقیق در عواملی که موجد این ادراک است، همچنان اهمیت دارد. این مقاله با این پرسش که خصوصیات اقلیمی چه تاثیری بر ایجاد حس مکان دارد، با این مفهوم نظری که نمیتوان اقلیم را به ویژگیهای آب و هوایی تقلیل داد، به پژوهش تحلیلی در دو منطقه اقلیمی متفاوت در ایران پرداخته است. این تحقیق کیفیِ پدیدارشناسی، با رویکردی اگزیستانسیال (سوم شخص) بر روش پژوهش تحلیل تطبیقی و استفاده از مطالعات میدانی در بافت قدیمی شهرهای رشت و یزد تکیه دارد. یافتههای پژوهش مؤید آن است که تفاوتهای حس مکان در معماری بافت قدیم شهرهای رشت و یزد با تکیه بر متغیرهایی از جمله خصوصیات کالبدی و بار معنایی قرار دارد. خصوصیات کالبدی موثر بر حس مکان همچون عوامل تحدید فضا، نظام عملکردی (شامل وجوهی چون فضاهای فعالیتی و کاربریهای عمومی و خصوصی) و نیز بار معنایی از جمله معانی حسی و ملموسِ محیط و معانی ارزشی و نمادین، تحت تاثیر عمیق اقلیم واقع است. به طور کلی اقلیم شامل دو دسته عوامل طبیعی- جغرافیایی و عوامل انسان- ساخت، در هر دو منطقهی مورد مطالعه، پدیداری و ادراک حس مکان را دستخوش تغییر قرار داده است.
تازه های تحقیق
- مبتنی بر تحقیق پدیدارشناسی در بافت تاریخی شهرهای رشت و یزد، متغیرهای خصوصیات کالبدی، نظام عملکردی و بار معنایی مورد واکاوی قرار گرفت.
- یافتهها موید آن است که اقلیم در دو دسته ویژگیهای طبیعی- جغرافیایی و خصوصیات انسان- ساخت بر زیرمولفههای هر سه دسته متغیرهای به وجودآورنده حس مکان یعنی کالبدی، عملکردی و معنایی تاثیرگذار بوده است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Exploring the Impact of Regional Factors on the Sense of Place; A comparative study of the Historic Districts of Rasht and Yazd
Background and Objectives: In recent years, by the transition from premises of structuralism, subjects like the sense of place have been studied in the paradigm of post-structuralism. This has been done through the lens of post-structuralism to better understand the unique characteristics that contribute to this sense. However, it is valuable to understand the importance of comprehending the sense of place, including cognitive processes and analyzing the factors that contribute to this perception. This article challenges the notion that regional features are solely determined by weather and conducts an analytical study in two distinct regions in Iran to examine the impact of regional factors on the sense of place. The sense of place, in general concept, means the different quality of perception of the space through living and being in the space, which can convert a space into a place. The place, with all of its unique features, belongs to a special territory that creates its own region and habitat, which is distinct from other places.
Methods: The objective of this study is to examine how regional factors impact the sense of place. The research focuses on two categories: the natural-geographical environment and the human-made environment. The goal is to identify which regional factors have the greatest influence on the sense of place. This study is a qualitative phenomenological survey that employs an existential (third-person) approach and a comparative analysis method. The study involves field research conducted in the historic districts of Rasht and Yazd cities. According to the research subject, initially, the literature was reviewed, and previous studies were examined. Subsequently, with the aid of field research and an existential approach, the significant factors influencing the sense of place were illustrated in a descriptive manner. Fundamental descriptions of research are extracted in a documentary method and then obtained results are compared with the outcomes of field studies that involve direct observations and interviews with individual or group participants. In fact, the discrepancy in comprehension of humans from a place is the most significant concept of this article, and we can perceive the reasons by recognizing effective factors on comprehension. This research, in a theoretical method, depicts that personal characteristics and environments are pivotal factors in human comprehension. The aim of our study is to compare the impact of regional factors and the built environment on the sense of place. For this purpose, we have chosen two different regions in Iran: Rasht and Yazd. These cities have a rich historical background and are known for their cultural heritage. These cities were selected since they are good examples of places where the sense of place has been preserved over time and is deeply rooted in the collective memory of the local community, according to experts. For compiling the conceptual model of the research, the researchers reviewed the descriptions, concepts, and opinions of experts and researchers and universal experiments on the subject of the sense of place to select the criteria and sub-criterions for this article. According to the opinions of the majority of experts, the sense of place can be identified in three dimensions: somatic place, functional system, and connotation. Considering the holistic concept of the region, which encompasses the habitat and the entirety of a geographical area, including its culture and social values, it is evident that the region influences everything from social norms to cultural practices and habits.
Findings: According to studies of this research, the formation of the sense of place can be identified in three dimensions: somatic, functional, and connotation. Effective somatic characteristics that contribute to the sense of place are derived from spatial constraints and encompass a range of factors, from building and architectural elements to furniture. The second category that can affect the sense of place is the functional system, which is influenced by the residential and urban living requirements as well as social and cultural needs, resulting in different activities and various urban usages. The sense of place can be influenced by these various functions. The third group, referred to as connotation, encompasses both tangible and intangible meanings that interact with the physical surroundings and biological characteristics, as well as normative meanings that are influenced by individual and social values. After that, the research focuses on identifying the most influential factors of the region on the sense of place, which in turn affect the related sub-criteria. These factors include spatial constraints such as horizontal and vertical elements, connectors, openings, and fixed furniture. Furthermore, the region can influence the organization of residential, commercial, collective, cultural, and religious activities, as well as intuitive meanings, and can also affect the tangible features of the place, such as the adaptability of elements to atmospheric conditions, decorative elements, visual background, dominant materials, somatic characteristics of the place, and the scent of natural native elements. The symbolic normative meanings influenced by the region include semiology, tales and fables, inclination towards urban gatherings, the presence and activity of individuals on a daily or occasional basis, accessibility to all age and gender groups, social control, security, and the existence of social and public activities.
Conclusion: According to a comparative assessment of these factors in the historic district of Rasht and Yazd, it can be stated that the factors of the region that recreate the sense of place have diverse appearances in somatic characteristics, functional systems, and connotations in each of the studied areas. By taking into account the paradigm of this research and examining the elements and sub-components, we can confirm the breadth of the region’s impact on the emergence and understanding of the sense of place in the two factors mentioned earlier, i.e., natural-geographical and human-formed factors.