نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکده معماری، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی معماری، پردیس البرز، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

هدف مقاله حاضر تعیین مهارت‌های نرم و سخت و میزان اهمیت آن‌ها برای استخدام تازه دانش‌آموختگان معماری در شرکت‌های مهندسان مشاور است. برای دستیابی به این هدف سه پرسش طرح گردید: پرسش نخست در پی یافتن نسبت اهمیت مهارت سخت به نرم، پرسش دوم در پی تعیین مهم‌ترین و کم اهمیت‌ترین مهارت‌ها و پرسش سوم در پی تعیین رابطه بین سطح شرکت (کوچک، متوسط و بزرگ) و میزان اهمیت این مهارت‌ها است. بدین منظور در گام نخست، مروری بر مبانی و پیشینه موضوع انجام و گویه‌های دو دسته مهارت‌ نرم و سخت استخراج گردید. در گام دوم، مبتنی بر این گویه‌ها پرسشنامه‌ای تدوین و در اختیار نمونه آماری پژوهش متشکل از مدیران شرکت‌های مهندسان مشاور قرار گرفت. نتایج تحلیل کمی داده‌ها با نرم‌افزار SPSS حاکی از آن است که از دید مدیران این شرکت‌ها برای استخدام تازه دانش‌آموختگان معماری اهمیت مهارت سخت 38/44% و مهارت نرم 62/55 % است. از بین مهارت‌های سخت، در شرکت‌های کوچک نرم‌افزار بیشترین و قوانین حقوقی کمترین، در شرکت‌های متوسط سابقه کاری و طراحی به ترتیب بیشترین و نوع مدرک کمترین و در شرکت‌های بزرگ نرم‌افزار بیشترین و نوع مدرک کمترین درجه اهمیت را دارد. از بین مهارت‌های نرم، در شرکت‌های کوچک اخلاق حرفه‌ای بیشترین و پژوهش، مدیریت پروژه و مهارت ارتباطی کمترین، در شرکت‌های متوسط اخلاق حرفه‌ای بیشترین و مدیریت پروژه کمترین و در شرکت‌های بزرگ اخلاق حرفه‌ای بیشترین و پژوهش کمترین اهمیت را دارا هستند. در کل فارغ از سطح شرکت‌ها و تقسیم‌بندی مهارت‌ها، مهم‌ترین مهارت اخلاق حرفه‌ای و کم اهمیت‌ترین نوع مدرک است. مبتنی بر نتایج آزمون کروسکال والیس بین سطح شرکت‌ و میزان اهمیت مهارت‌های سخت و نرم ارتباطی وجود ندارد. همچنین تحلیل کیفی مصاحبه با مدیران شرکت‌ها تغییرات مورد نیاز آموزش دانشگاهی برای افزایش توانمندی دانشجویان برای ورود به بازار کار را آشکار و پیشنهاداتی برای دانشجویان ارائه نمود.

تازه های تحقیق

- در استخدام تازه دانش‌آموختگان معماری، میزان اهمیت مهارت‌ نرم حدود 10% بیشتر از مهارت سخت است.
- مهم‌ترین مهارت نرم "اخلاق حرفه‌ای" و مهم‌ترین مهارت سخت "نرم افزار" می‌باشد. فارغ از سطح شرکت‌ها در بین همه مهارت‌های نرم و سخت، مهم‌ترین مهارت "اخلاق حرفه‌ای" است که جزء مهارت‌های نرم می‌باشد و کم اهمیت‌ترین مهارت "نوع مدرک" است که جزء مهارت‌های سخت می‌باشد. 
- میزان اهمیت مهارت سخت و نرم در استخدام تازه دانش‌آموختگان به سطح شرکت (کوچک، متوسط، یا بزرگ) بستگی ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the viewpoints of consulting engineering companies on hard and soft skills for employing new architecture graduates employability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parastoo Eshrati 1
  • Anahita Jam 2

1 Associate Professor, School of Architecture, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Master of Architecture, Alborz Pardis, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: The demand for employment upon graduation has heightened the significance of essential job market skills more than before. The main skills for entering any profession include soft skills and hard skills. Hard skills include the technical and scientific knowledge. Both skills are necessary for the profession. The purpose of this paper is to determine hard and soft skills required for the employment of new architecture graduates and assess the significance of each skill.
Methods: The research questions aim to ascertain the significance ratios of these skills, identify the most and least important skills, and establish a correlation between company size (small, medium, and large) and the importance of these skills. Initially, following a comprehensive literature review, soft skills were classified into seven distinct categories. Simultaneously, the requisite hard skills for architecture graduates were extracted from the Ministry of Science and Technology-approved bachelor’s and master’s degree curricula in architecture, resulting in the presentation of a seven-category list of hard skills. Subsequently, a questionnaire based on the identified soft and hard skills was developed and administered to the study’s sample group, comprising managers from small, medium, and large companies. Companies were categorized based on the number of full-time employees, with “small” companies having 7 or fewer employees, “medium” companies having 7 to 12 employees, and “large” companies having 13 to 50 employees. Non-parametric tests were used for hypothesis testing. Given the nature of the hypotheses, which involve the comparison of three independent groups (small, medium, and large companies), the “Kruskal-Wallis test” was chosen to analyze the data collected from the questionnaires. Based on results of papers in the field of statistical analysis of small populations, a minimum sample size of 9 individuals is required to conduct the Kruskal-Wallis test for three groups. However, in this study, data collection exceeded this minimum requirement to the greatest extent possible for the authors. Subsequently, the data was quantitatively analyzed using SPSS software.
Findings: The quantitative analysis conducted using SPSS software reveals that, according to company managers, hard skills hold a 44.38% level of importance, while soft skills account for 55.62%. However, the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test indicate that there is no correlation between the company size and the level of importance of hard and soft skills. Regarding the research findings, the hard skills in order of importance are: software, design, work experience, theoretical knowledge, free-hand drawing, legal regulation, and type of degree. In contrast, the order of importance for soft skills is as follows: professional ethics, analysis and problem-solving, self-management, leadership, project management, communication skills, and research. Furthermore, the study’s results demonstrate a significant relationship between a company size and the specific type of soft and hard skills required by that company. 
Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that soft skills are more important than hard skills for hiring fresh architecture graduates but there is no correlation between the company size and the importance level of hard and soft skills in general. When considering hard skills, software is the most important in small companies, while regulation is the least significant. In medium-sized companies, work experience and design rank highest, whereas the type of degree is considered the least important. In larger companies, software stands out as the most crucial, while university rank is perceived as the least important. Among soft skills, in small companies, the most important skills are professional ethics and three skills including research, project management and communication are the least important ones; in medium size companies the most important skill is professional ethics and the least is project management; and in large companies the most important ones is professional ethics and the least is research. Regardless of the level of companies and the division of skills, the most important skill is professional ethics and the least important one is university rank. Analysis of interviews with company managers conducted in a qualitative manner also reveals the necessary changes required in the architecture education system to enhance students’ employability and offered suggestions for students. In light of the study findings, it is advisable to consider incorporating a course focused on developing soft skills into architecture curricula, particularly at the undergraduate level.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soft Skills
  • Hard Skills
  • Architecture Education
  • Employability Skills
  • Architecture Graduate
  1. Alaei, Ali. (2010). Increase in the Number of Admitted Students in the Field of Architecture and Its Consequences. Soffeh, (51)20, 48-41. [In Persion]
  2. Almedia, F., & Morais, J. (2021). Strategies for Developing Soft Skills Among Higher Engineering Courses. Journal of Education, in press, pp. 1-10.
  3. Bailey, J. L., & Stefanizk, G. (2002). Preparing the information technology workforce for the new millennium. ACM SIGCPR Computer Personnel, 20(4), 4–15.
  4. Bakhtiari, Mehri, and Biglar, Kumars. (2019). Employment of  Recent University Graduates in Iranian Firms’ Internal Audit Department. Journal of Empirical Research in Accounting, Summer 2019, 9(2), 93-120. [In Persion]
  5. Beard, D., Schwieger, D., & Surendran, K. (2007). Incorporating soft skills into accounting and MIS curricula. 2007 ACM SIGMIS CPR conference on 2007 computer personnel doctoral consortium and research conference: The global information technology workforce. St. Louis, MO: ACM, 179–185.
  6. Bennett, N., Dunne, E., & Carré, C. (1999). Patterns of core and generic skill provision in higher education. Higher Education, 37,  71–93.
  7. Bloor, M., & Wood, F. (2006). Keywords in Qualitative Methods. SAGE Publications Inc., California.
  8. Caeiro-Rodríguez, M., Manso-Vázquez, M., Mikic-Fonte, F. A., Llamas-Nistal, M.,  Fernández-Iglesias, M., Hariklia Tsalapatas, H., …, & Sørensen, L. T. (2021). Teaching Soft Skills in Engineering Education: An European Perspective. IEEE Access, 9, 29222-29242.
  9. Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Arteche, A., Bremner, A.J., Greven. C., & Furnham, A. (2010). Soft skills in higher education: importance and improvement ratings as a function of individual differences and academic performance. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 30)2(, 221-241.
  10. Darvishan, Ali; Taslimi, Mohammad Saeed; Hakimzadeh, Rizvan. (2019). Designing a Model for Employability Skills for Higher Education Graduates: ( Case Study: SMEs In Tehran Province). Journal of Higher education Curriculum, 10(19), 7-39. [In Persion]
  11. Federica Emanuel, F., Ricchiardi, P., Sanseverino, D., & Ghislieri, Ch. (2021). Make soft skills stronger? An online enhancement platform for highe education. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 2 (2021-100096(, 1-9.
  12. Gallivan, M. J., Truex, D. P., & Kvasny, L. (2004). Changing Patterns in IT Skill Sets 1998–2003: A Content Analysis of Classified Advertising. Database for Advances in Information Systems, 35, 64–86.
  13. Gopi Krishna, A. K., Suneetha Reddy, K., Chitra, V. B., & Suneetha Y. (2019). Assessment of Soft Skills among Engineering Students - An Analytical Study. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), Volume-7, Issue-ICETESM, March 2019, 91-94.
  14. Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., de Lacey, S. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human Reproduction, 31(3), 498-501.
  15. Hashempour, Parisa; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Nadimi, Hamid. (2019). Application of Emotional Intelligence in the Process of Architectural Design Education: An Inquiry in the Requirements of architectural desipline with refrence to emotional skills. Journal of Technology of Education, 13(4), 845-860. [In Persion].
  16. Hojat, Eisa. (2003). Architecture Education and the Devaluation of Values. Journal of Fine Arts - Architecture and Urbanism, 14, 63-70. [In Persion]
  17. Iran Statistical Center (2021). Abstract of the Results of the Spring 2021 Labor Force Survey. Population, Labor, and Census Office. Retrieved from: https://www.amar.org.ir/Portals/0/News/1400/nirooyekar001.pdf. Access date: 20th February 2022. [In Persion]
  18. Katib, Gholamreza. (2015). 96% of University Graduates Lack Occupational Skills. Tasnim News Agency, 9 June 2015, Accessible at: https://www.tasnimnews.com/fa/news/1394/03/19/764156/. Access date: 29th April 2020. [In Persion]
  19. Lalbakhsh, Etrat; Ghobadian, Vahid; Azizi, Shadi. (2019). A Model of Architectural Design Education Based on collaborative and interactive thoughts. Journal of Technology of Education, 13(4), 819-829. [In Persion]
  20. Litkouhi, Sanaz; Litkouhi, Sachli; Ghorbani, Ali. (2008). Barresi va Tadavoye Harfeyi-ye Faraghe Elmi-ye Maa'mari va Naghshe Amuzesh-haye Akademik dar Amadeh-saziye Harfi-iye Daneshjuyan. 3rd Architecture Education Conference, Tehran: Pardis-e Honarhaye Ziba, University of Tehran, Autumn 2008, 411-427. [In Persion]
  21. Mohamed Khodeir, L., & Nessim, A. A. (2020). Changing skills for architecture students employability: Analysis of job market versus architecture education in Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11(3), 811-821.
  22. Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Sotudeh Gharebagh, Rahmat. (2018). Soft Skills for Engineering Students and Graduates. Iranian Journal of Engineering Education, 80(1), 1-29. [In Persion]
  23. Nadimi, Hamid. (2005). Strategic Planning for Schools of Architecture: Why and How?. Soffeh, 15(41), 126-141. [In Persion]
  24. Nazaré de Freitas A. P., & Almendra, R. A. (2021). Soft skills in design education, identification, classification, and relations: Proposal of a conceptual map. Design and Technology Education: An Internatioal Journal, 26 (3), 245-260.
  25. Noll, Cheryl L., & Wilkins, M. (2002). Critical skills of IS professionals: a model for curriculum development. Journal of Information Technology Education, 1(3), 143–154.
  26. Padilha, F., Gruber, L., Ribeiro, Y., Carvalho, J., Beuren, F.,  Fagundes, A., Pereira, D., & de Campos, D. (2021). Resilience as an Important Soft Skill for Engineers’ Work during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Creative Education, 12, 2529-2534. doi: 10.4236/ce.2021.1211189.
  27. Rahmani, Sara. (2016). Exploring Professional Competencies of Graduates in Architecture in Alignment with Curriculum Objectives. Third Conference on Psychology, Educational Sciences, and Lifestyle with an International Approach, August 2016, Mashhad, 1-19. [In Persion]
  28. Revised Curriculum of Continuous Bachelor's Program in Architecture. (2013). Reviewed on 9 March 2014 by the University of Tehran, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Higher Education Planning Council. Accessible at: https://prog.msrt.ir/fa/grid/108/. Access date: 3rd March 2022. [In Persion]
  29. Revised Curriculum of Continuous Bachelor's Program in Architecture. (2016). Reviewed on 26 December 2016 by Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Higher Education Planning Council. Accessible at: https://prog.msrt.ir/fa/grid/108/. Access date: 4th July 2020. [In Persion]
  30. Revised Curriculum of Non-Continuous Master's Program in Architecture. (2013). Reviewed on 9 March 2014 by the University of Tehran, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Higher Education Planning Council. Accessible at: https://prog.msrt.ir/fa/grid/107. Access date: 3rd March 2022. [In Persion]
  31. Revised Curriculum of Non-Continuous Master's Program in Architecture. (2013). Reviewed on 16 February 2014 by Shahid Beheshti University, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, Higher Education Planning Council. Accessible at: https://prog.msrt.ir/fa/grid/107. Access date: 3rd March 2022. [In Persion]
  32. Salleh, R., Yusoff, M. A. M., Harun, H., & Memon, M. A. (2015). Gauging industry’s perspectives on soft skills of graduate architects: importance vs satisfaction. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 7(2), 95-101.
  33. Schulz, B. (2008). The Importance of soft skills: Education beyond academic knowledge. NAWA Journal of Language and Communication, 2(1), 146–154.
  34. Sedaghati, Abbas; Hojat, Isa. (2019). Investigating contiguous master’s and non-countiguous master's courses of architecture and comparing their adaptability with architectural education factors. Journal of Technology of Education, 14(1), 101-119. [In Persion]
  35. Strauss, Anselm, and Corbin, Juliet. (2014). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Translated by Ebrahim Afshar. Ney Publishing, Tehran. [In Persion]
  36. Taghi, Zahra. (2008). Reflections on the Implications of Quantitative Growth in the Bachelor of Architecture Program in Universities of the Country. Soffeh, 17(46), 125-134. [In Persion].
  37. Yadegarzadeh, Gholamreza. (2017). The Elements of Occupation in the Curriculum. Journal of Higher Higher Curriculum Studies, 8(15), 135-178. [In Persion]
  38. Yadegarzadeh, Gholamreza; Fathi Vachargah, Kourosh; Mehrmohammadi, Mahmoud; Arefi, Mahboubeh. (2016). An Analysis of the Necessities and Requirements of Reflective Thinking in the Objectives, Strategies, and Curriculum of Specialized Doctoral Programs. Journal of Research in Teaching, 4(1), 47-64. [In Persion]
  39. Yadin, A. (2012). Enhancing information systems students' soft skill- a case study. I.J. Modern Education and Computer Science, 4(10), 17-25.