نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه فناوری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار،گروه فناوری معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

از آنجایی که دریافت روشنایی طبیعی در مکان‌های مختلف با توجه به مسیر حرکت خورشید و شرایط مختلف آسمان در طول روز، فصل و سال متمایز است، می‌توان با استفاده از نمای کینتیک میزان روشنایی طبیعی در فضای داخل را متعادل و بهینه کرد. از این رو پژوهش حاضر بهره‌گیری از روشنایی طبیعی را با استفاده از دو نمای کینتیک با الگوی هندسی مثلثی همسان و الگوهای حرکتی تاشو و چرخش ناهمسان در جداره جنوبی یک ساختمان اداری در تهران بررسی می‌کند. با ارزیابی شاخص روشنایی در دو نمای کینتیک می‌توان دریافت که الگوی حرکتی نما چه تاثیری در روشنایی یک فضای اداری دارد. به منظور ارزیابی دریافت نور روز، شاخص‌های نور روز پویا و دو الگوی حرکتی نمای کینتیک با استفاده از روش کمی و ابزار شبیه‌سازی گرسهاپر و پلاگین هانیبی پلاس نسخه 06 و لیدی باگ البیتی نسخه 1.5.0مورد سنجش قرار گرفته‌اند. نتایج حاصل از شبیه‌سازی با استفاده از روش مطالعه تطبیقی موردبررسی و تحلیل قرارگرفته است. در این پژوهش ابتدا به معرفی نمای کینتیک و ساختارهای حرکتی نما، سپس شاخص‌های روشنایی نور روز و مقدار روشنایی مورد نیاز یک فضای اداری پرداخته شده است. با توجه به داده‌های موجود دو نمای برگرفته از برج البحر با الگوی حرکتی تاشو و دیوار کاپرا با الگوی حرکتی چرخشی مورد شبیه‌سازی قرارگرفته است. در نهایت نتایج شبیه‌سازی مورد مقایسه و تحلیل قرار گرفته و متناسب با داده‌ها پارامترهای متغیر برای بهبود وضعیت روشنایی در نظر گرفته شده است. در مقایسه نتایج نما، الگوی حرکتی تاشو مشخص شد که در هر سه ماه تیر، فروردین و دی احتمال خیرگی و عدم آسایش بصری در فضا ایجاد شده است همچنین در ساعت 12 ظهر ماه‌های تیر و فروردین با نور کم در فضا مواجه است. اما نما با الگوی حرکتی چرخشی فقط با مسئله نور کم در فضا مواجه است. که این مقادیر در هر دو نما با تغییر پارامترها برطرف شده است. در نتیجه‌ی پارامترهای متغیر در درجه اول تغییر زاویه نما یا میزان گشودگی آن با عملکرد نما با موقعیت خورشید از اهمیت بیشتری نسبت به ضریب انعکاس سطوح و انتقال بصری شیشه برخوردار هستند، در نهایت الگوی حرکتی چرخشی نسبت به الگوی حرکتی تاشو در پاسخگویی به روشنایی طبیعی عملکرد بهتری دارد.

چکیده تصویری

مطالعه تطبیقی الگوی حرکتی نماهای کینتیک با الگوی هندسی مثلثی با توجه به دریافت روشنایی طبیعی در ساختمان اداری در شهر تهران

تازه های تحقیق

- تبیین نمای کینتیک و تاثیر آن بر روشنایی طبیعی. 
- تأثیر الگوی حرکتی و هندسی نمای کینتیک بر روشنایی طبیعی در ساختمان اداری تهران.
- تأثیر خواص نوری و حرارتی بر آنالیز روشنایی طبیعی.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparative study of the kinetic movement pattern of a triangular geometric facade regarding natural lighting in an office building in Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fataneh Sangtarash 1
  • Niloufar Nikghadam 2
  • Rima Fayaz 3
  • Mohammad Reza Matini 4

1 Ph.D. in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, Architectural Technology Department, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Architectural Technology Department, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: Since the reception of natural lighting in different places is different regarding the sun path and the different sky conditions during the day, season, and year, employing a kinetic facade allows for the adjustment and enhancement of interior natural lighting levels. The geometric pattern and the movement pattern are critical issues in the design of kinetic facades. One of the strategies use in this facade is the control of light entering the space. Another advantage of their efficacy in enhancing the quality of daylight is the improvement in visual quality, particularly in office and public areas. Hence, this present study explores natural lighting by employing two kinetic facades. These facades feature a comparable triangular geometric model but differ in their non-symmetrical folding and rotating kinetic design on the south wall of an office building in Tehran. Consequently, the dissimilarities in kinetic models are compared based on the utilization of natural lighting, and their similarities are identified and analyzed to determine the most suitable option.
Methods: To assess natural lighting, the quantitative method and simulation tools utilized were Grasshopper and Honeybee Plus plugin version 06, along with Ladybug lbt version 1.5.0. Subsequently, the simulation results were scrutinized employing the comparative study method. Initially, the simulation involves defining the geometry of a room with specific dimensions: a width of 4 meters, a length of 6 meters, and a height of 3 meters, resulting in a total area of 24 square meters, intended for four employees. The simulated model is located in Tehran, with no shading obstacles. The facades will open and close with the position of the sun and the perpendicular vector on the triangular geometric model. The simulation is run for three days of the year: the 21st of March (spring equinox), the 21st of June (summer solstice), and the 21st of December (winter solstice) (due to the similarity of the autumn equinox with the spring equinox, the latter is not considered) and working hour is from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.
Findings: When comparing the facades, it is observed that the folding kinetic model presents a potential issue of glare and visual discomfort in the space during the months of June, March, and April. This concern is particularly notable at 12 noon in both June and March, coinciding with low light conditions in the space. However, the facade with a rotating kinetic model is only faced with the issue of insufficient light in the space. In order to address these issues, various parameters have been modified. To enhance UDI (Useful Daylight Illuminance) indices with a rotational kinetic model, adjustments were made to ASE (Annual Sunlight Exposure), sDA (Spatial Daylight Autonomy), and UDI indicators with a folding motion model. Variable parameters included alterations in facade size, modifications to the visual transmission coefficient of glass, adjustments to the reflection coefficient of interior walls (ceiling and wall), and changes in the angle or degree of openness for these indicators.
Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be said that a kinetic facade with a triangular geometric pattern and asynchronous motion patterns exhibit different performances in response to natural lighting, considering daylight performance indicators. The facade with a rotating pattern demonstrates a notable impact on the UDI (Useful Daylight Illuminance) daylight indicator, and this effect can be mitigated by adjusting the angle. However, in the kinetic facade, the fluctuation of ASE (Annual Sunlight Exposure) and UDI (Useful Daylight Illuminance) indicators is less influenced. This is attributed not only to the shifting position of the sun in relation to the facade but also to the simultaneous necessity of altering both the extent of the facade opening and the reflection coefficient of the window and glass. The response of both facades, influenced by the variable parameters, places greater emphasis on the degree of facade opening and its correlation with the sun’s position, rather than on the reflection coefficient of the surfaces and the visual transmission coefficient of the glass. Finally, the rotational motion pattern performs better in response to natural lighting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Kinetic Pattern
  • Dynamic Daylight
  • Kinetic Facade
  • Office Building
  • Simulation

این مقاله برگرفته از رساله دکتری نویسنده نخست با عنوان «تبیین الگوی هندسی و حرکتی نمای کینتیک برای پاسخگویی بهینه به روشنایی طبیعی، نمونه موردی: ساختمان اداری در اقلیم گرم و خشک تهران» می‌باشد که به راهنمایی نویسنده دوم و سوم و مشاوره نویسنده چهارم در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران جنوب انجام گرفته است.

This article is derived from the first author`s doctoral thesis entitled “The explanation of the Geometric and movement pattern of the Kinetic façade for optimal response to natural light Case study: Office building in “hot and dry” climate of Tehran”, supervised by the second  and third authors and advised by the fourth, at Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch.

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