نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری معماری، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه معماری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

خانه به عنوان مکانی بی‌واسطه‌ و بی‌تکلف‌، تاثیر عمیقی بر احساسات ساکنین خود دارد. اما امروزه خانه‌های آپارتمانی در تاکید صرف بر عملکردها، احساسات ساکنین را نادیده می‌گیرند و با ایجاد احساسات، افکار و تمایلات متناقض باعث ناسازگاری شناختی و اضطراب عاطفی می‌شوند. سوال اصلی پژوهش این است که چگونه می‌توان ناسازگاری شناختی در خانه‌های معاصر آپارتمانی را کاهش داد؟ و هدف از طرح این پژوهش ارائه راهکارهایی برای ایجاد سازگاری شناختی در خانه‌های آپارتمانی با تاکید بر مکان-احساس‌ها در کنار مکان-رفتارهاست. در پژوهش حاضر از روش کیفی و نظریه زمینه‌ای استفاده شده و پس از مرور ادبیات در حوزه ناسازگاری شناختی و قابلیت محیط، مطالعه میدانی بر سی و چهار نفر از ساکنین بیست خانه‌ی آپارتمانی انجام شده است تا اینکه داده‌ها به مرحله اشباع رسیده‌اند. در این مرحله اطلاعات از طریق مصاحبه و تهیه عکس و کروکی جمع‌آوری شده و نقشه‌های مکان-رفتار و مکان-احساس ترسیم شده‌اند. نهایتاً با انطباق این نقشه‌ها نتیجه‌گیری صورت گرفته است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که در خانه‌های معاصر آپارتمانی مکان-احساس‌ها و مکان-رفتارها بر یکدیگر منطبق نیستند و این مسئله باعث ایجاد ناسازگاری شناختی و تنش می‌شود. برای کاهش این تنش‌ها و ایجاد سازگاری شناختی در سه سطح، راهکارهایی ارائه شده است. در سطح ارتباط بین فضاها، استفاده از ساختار خطی، اتاق‌های با دو در و تفکیک فضاها پیشنهاد شده. در سطح ابعاد و ماهیت فضا، به راهکارهایی مثل هماهنگی مقیاس فعالیت و مقیاس فضا، اتاق‌هایی با ابعاد خیلی کوچک، تخلخل در جداره‌ها، فضاهایی برای پشتیبانی فعالیت‌های اختیاری و عرض حداقل دو متر برای تراس اشاره شده است و در سطح جزئیات و اجزاء فضا، راهکارهایی از جمله نور طبیعی، فضاسازی احساسی در اطراف منابع گرمایشی، جداره متخلخل در تراس، نشیمنگاه در کنار پنجره و شومینه ارائه شده‌اند.

چکیده تصویری

راهکارهای کاهش ناسازگاری شناختی در خانه‌های معاصر آپارتمانی از طریق انطباق مکان-احساس‌ها و مکان-رفتارها

تازه های تحقیق

- تاکید بر اهمیت تاثیر خانه بر احساسات ساکنین، از طریق واژه محقق‌ساخت«قابلیت احساسی» که می‌تواند در عین سادگی پژوهش‌های این حوزه را ارتقاء دهد. در واقع احساسات ساکنین می‌تواند با متغیرهای مداخله‌گر تحت تاثیر قرار گیرد، اما قابلیت احساسی فضا ثابت و قابل پژوهش است. 
- کشف سه قابلیت احساسی خانه شامل «فضامندی»، «دنجی» و «خاطره‌انگیزی».
- تاکید بر ارتباط قابلیت‌های رفتاری و احساسی با نگاه کل‌نگر.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Solutions to reduce cognitive dissonance in contemporary apartment units through adaptation of place-emotions and place-behaviors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Dashti 1
  • Minoo Shafaei 2
  • Mohsen Afshari 2

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Background and Objectives: The residence, being a modest space, significantly influences the emotions of those who dwell in it. However, apartment units, in their mere emphasis on functions, ignore the emotions of the occupants and cause cognitive dissonance and anxiety by creating conflicting emotions, thoughts, and desires. The primary research inquiry revolves around finding methods to minimize cognitive dissonance in modern apartment units. The purpose of this research is to identify common cognitive dissonances in contemporary apartments through identifying the emotional and behavioral affordances of residential spaces and the adaptation of place-emotions and place-behaviors, and secondly, to provide solutions to create cognitive compatibility in these houses. So far, the emotional affordances of the environment have been implicitly expressed in the definitions of the indirect affordances of the environment, but no consistent research has been done in this regard. Indeed, studies on environmental affordances typically focus on behavioral and functional aspects. This research aims to examine how the qualities and spatial features of a residence impact residents’ emotions. It delves into the concept of emotional affordances of the environment, providing clarifications through examples.
Methods: In this study, a qualitative method and grounded theory were employed. Following a literature review on cognitive dissonance and environmental affordance, a field study was conducted involving thirty-four residents from twenty apartment units. At this stage, information is collected through interviews and photographs and sketches. Then place-behaviors and place-emotions maps were also drawn. Finally, conclusions have been made by adapting these maps. Apartment units are considered as the current model of contemporary housing in the current research. The samples were first selected from the city of Zanjan and after the pilot study, in order to verify the findings and continue the field research, samples from the cities of Karaj, Tehran, Shiraz and Tabriz were added to the research. The samples were selected from middle-class housing and mass complexes were not considered in this research. Also, the purpose of the current research was to study the middle-class housing, which has an acceptable expansion and the most frequency in the country. The research exploratory nature led to the researcher not pre determinedly defining the space characteristics in the study design. Instead, characteristics considered more crucial from the audience’s perspective in eliciting place-emotions, and those to which residents are more sensitive, were identified through interviews, extracted, and coded. Interview tools were used to collect information, and two-person interviews were chosen as the main tool for data collection in this research. In order to understand the emotional and behavioral affordances of the units, the interview questions were designed in a semi-structured way. In addition to interviews, photos and sketches have been used to draw and finally analyze place-emotions and place-behaviors.
Findings: In the theoretical part of the research findings based on the grounded research method and selective coding, three characteristics of behavioral patterns were identified, which include “types of activity (responsible, vital and optional activities)”, “scale of activity” and “time period of activity”. It was also found that the emotions related to the space can be divided into three categories of “spaciousness”, “coziness” and “memorability” under the title of the types of emotional affordances of the space. This research underscores the significance of residences having an additional dimension that encompasses place-emotions. Identifying examples of emotional affordances within residences can play a crucial role in analyzing place-emotions and mitigating cognitive dissonance. Therefore, the innovation in this research lies in expanding the theory of behavioral settings and exploring the impact of the relationship between place-emotion and place-behavior on cognitive dissonance. In the applied section of the study, the maps were analyzed utilizing the categories derived from behavioral and emotional patterns in apartment spaces. The aim was to illustrate that the repercussions of exclusively prioritizing functions and neglecting place-emotions in modern apartments can be elucidated by identifying cognitive dissonance. In the following, at three levels of “space details”, “space essence” and “connection between spaces”, design solutions were presented in order to strengthen emotional and functional affordances and resolve cognitive dissonance in contemporary residential spaces.
Conclusion: Findings show that in contemporary apartment units, place-emotions and place-behaviors do not match, and this causes cognitive dissonance and stress. To reduce these tensions and cognitive dissonance, solutions have been proposed at three levels. At the level of communication between spaces, the use of linear structure, rooms with two doors and separation of spaces are suggested. At the level of dimensions and nature of the space, solutions such as coordination of activity scale and space scale, rooms with very small dimensions, transparent walls, spaces to support optional activities and a width of at least two meters for the terrace are mentioned. In the level of details and components of the space, solutions such as natural light, emotional atmosphere around the heating sources, transparent wall on the terrace and fireplace are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive Dissonance
  • Environment Affordance
  • Place-Behavior
  • Place-Emotion
  • Contemporary House

این مقاله برگرفته از رساله دکتری نویسنده نخست با عنوان «ویژگی‌های فضایی مؤثر بر پدیداری مکان-احساس در واحد مسکونی آپارتمانی متداول ایران» می‌باشد که به راهنمایی نویسنده دوم و مشاوره نویسنده سوم در دانشگاه هنر اصفهان انجام گرفته است.

This article is derived from the first author`s doctoral thesis entitled “Efficient Spatial Features on the Phenomenon of Place-Emotion in a Conventional Residential Apartment Unit in Iran ”, supervised by the second author and advised by the third, at Art University of Isfahan.

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